Copyright (C) 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 The Frugalware
Developer Team.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

1. Introduction

Before you start to read this document, you should know some important things about how to read it.

1.1. Things that you should really read

First there are some part of this document that you should really read, to understand how Frugalware works and how to administer it.

Important references to read:
  • This introduction ;)

  • How to use pacman-g2.

  • How to manage services.

1.2. Running console commands

Throughout this document, there is boxed text which shows you console output. These are important and require quite some attention since most of the time you are expected to run them and get the same output.

$ echo foo bar
foo bar

This is how a console log look. Let’s look at its details so you understand what it means.

The echo foo bar part is what you should type and it’s the command. The following line foo bar is the output of the previous command.

<<<>>>

You may wonder what differentiates the command from the output. You see that in front of the command there is a $. This indicates that it’s a command line, but there is more meaning in this symbol. This symbol can change depending on the user privileges required to run the command.

Here is the list of the common prefix for the console commands:
  • $ indicates that any user can run the command. Most of the time it means you have to run it with your own user account.

  • user$ indicates that the specified user’s privileges are required to run this command. Usually this is necessary for security reasons.

    You can get an interactive shell for this user, replacing user with the desired user name, by issuing:

    $ su - user
  • # indicates that the root user’s privileges are required to run this command. Usually this is required to manage the system configuration.

    You can get an interactive shell for root running:

    $ su -

2. About Frugalware

Seeing this feast of wonderful code spread in front of me as a working system was a much more powerful experience than merely knowing, intellectually, that all the bits were probably out there. It was as though for years I’d been sorting through piles of disconnected car parts - only to be suddenly confronted with those same parts assembled into a gleaming red Ferrari, door open, keys swinging from the lock and engine gently purring with a promise of power…

— Eric S. Raymond

The aim of creating Frugalware was to help you do your work faster and simpler. We hope you will like it. In this introduction, we would like to answer a few questions which were asked in several interview with Miklos, the founder of the project. You can reach the full list of articles that have been posted about Frugalware here.

2.1. Short

Frugalware is a general purpose Linux distribution, designed for intermediate users (who are not afraid of text mode).

2.2. Long

What branches does Frugalware have?

“We have a -current and a -stable branch. The -current branch is updated daily, and we provide security support for our -stable branch till the next release, for approximately 6 months.”

What is "The Frugalware Philosophy" about?

“Briefly: simplicity, multimedia, design. We try to make Frugalware as simple as possible while not forgetting to keep it comfortable for the user. We try to ship fresh and stable software, as close to the original source as possible, because in our opinion most software is the best as is, and doesn’t need patching.”

What is the license of Frugalware?

“The license of Frugalware itself stands for the license of the buildscripts used for building Frugalware. That source is available under the GPL license here. Frugalware’s original init scripts were written by Patrick J. Volkerding, creator of the Slackware Linux distribution. We release out additions under the GPL, but Patrick J. Volkerding’s code is still under the BSD license. Frugalware also has a few side projects, like our pacman-g2 package manager, the Frugalware installer an so on. They are available under the GPL license, too. For more info about the license of the packages included in Frugalware, refer to the /usr/share/doc/*/COPYING files.”

What package manager does Frugalware use?

“We have our own package manager, called pacman-g2. It stands for the second generation of the pacman-g1 package manager, as it was originally based on Judd Vinet’s great work. The packages are simple .tar.bz2 files, pacman-g2 is written in C, unlike Slackware’s shellscript-based package manager (which may be rather slow sometimes).”

How does Frugalware manage updating obsolete packages?

“We don’t have any standalone program for updating packages as pacman-g2 manages this task too. To update your package database, use pacman-g2 -Sy, and to update your packages according the just synchronized package database, you use pacman-g2 -Su. To install package foo with the necessary dependencies directly from one of our ftp servers, you should issue pacman-g2 -S foo. For more information, refer to the pacman-g2 man page.”

Is there any community support available for Frugalware?

“We have mailing lists, IRC channels and forums that can be used to communicate with developers or with other users and to get help. You can reach the list of mailing lists available here. The IRC channels are on the Freenode network (server: irc.freenode.net), the discussion forums are available here.”

Is there any commercial support available for Frugalware?

“No, there isn’t for now, and currently it isn’t planned, either.”

For whom is Frugalware recommended to use?

“Frugalware is designed for intermediate users. Installing Frugalware doesn’t require any magic, of course, but you should read some documentation if you don’t know what a partition, an MBR (Master Boot Record), etc. is.”

How to become a developer?

“Get involved! :) Download the FST (Frugalware Source Tree) using the repoman upd command, which is available in the pacman-tools package. Then start to play with the FrugalBuild scripts, for a skeleton, refer to the /docs/skel directory. Try to improve them, or write a new one for a currently unsupported program. Then open feature requests in the Bug Tracking System and attach your patches. From this point everything will come naturally to you :)”

What do developers do?

“In short, what they want to, if they play a square game. They may maintain packages: building them if a newer version is available and update the FrugalBuild scripts to work correctly against a newer version. They can contribute a new build script for a previously non-existent package. They write documentation, fix bugs, provides support, or anything else in connection with the Frugalware community. If you want to help us, but you don’t want to be a developers, you may help in translating Frugalware to your or other language. And, of course, we happily accept donations. :) More info here.”

Who develops Frugalware?

“An amazing group of volunteers, who are motived by the users to do so. They also do it as a hobby, and they are always working on having up to date knowledge to make Frugalware even better for you.”

Is Frugalware specialized in a certain purpose?

“No, it’s a general purpose distribution, for desktops, mobile computers and servers.”

Do you plan to release a live cd?

“Well, we have already a live cd, called FwLive. Currently it supports only i686, but an x86_64 version is also under development. You can find it in the standard release directories.”

Does Frugalware support languages other than English?

“Yes, it supports all languages supported by the packages. If the init scripts, the setup or the documentation is not available in your language, then it simply means they haven’t yet been translated.”

What about Asian languages?

“Frugalware roughly supports Asian languages, but don’t expect too much - using UTF8 is not the default where it is possible.”

What architectures does Frugalware support?

“Currently we support x86 (Pentium Pro or higher), x86_64 (k8, aka. amd64) platforms and arm”

How are compressed the Frugalware packages ?

“FPM packages were originally .tar.gz packages, then a bit later we migrated to libarchive, which allowed bzip2 compression. Life was good, but then lzma was came, and I added support for libarchive, though others were not really interested in a migration, so we stick to .tar.bz2. A few months ago libarchive got support for the xz format (which is the successor of lzma), so we switched to it. pacman-g2 still support .tar.gz and .tar.bz2 as well, and the package extension is .fpm all the time to make it clear that it’s a Frugalware package”

3. Quick reference

3.1. Informations

  • Package management: pacman-g2 (command line)

  • Linux kernel 2.6 (no 2.4 support)

  • The latest documentation is here.

  • Hardware requirements and list of supported architectures are in the Installation section of the documentation.

3.2. Features

  • Stable releases every 6 months

  • Security support for stable releases

  • Text mode installation

  • Optional graphical installation

  • Offline installation, netboot install supported

  • Prebuilt CD/DVD/USB hybrid, TFTP images are available

  • Localization supported whereever it’s possible

  • About 5000 source packages and (as of March 2011) 6000 binary packages supported.

4. Installation

4.1. Hardware requirements

Given that the number of selected packages to install makes a lot of difference, there is no general answer. Though the followings are recommended for a default install:

  • Fearless attitude towards text mode

  • Some kind of installation media or set of downloaded packages

4.1.1. i686

  • A recent (read: Pentium 2 or higher) 32-bit Intel - or compatible - CPU

  • 256MB of RAM

  • 8GB of disk space (1GB for a minimal install)

4.1.2. x86_64

  • A 64-bit AMD - or compatible, so EM64T is fine - CPU

  • 256MB of RAM

  • 8GB of disk space (1GB for a minimal install)

4.1.3. arm

  • A Marvell Kirkwood platform (e.g. SheevaPlug, Seagate Dockstar, OpenRD, …)

  • 32MB of RAM

  • 1GB of disk space

4.2. Choosing installation flavor

Depending on your needs, there are different installers with different characteristics. You can choose which fits you the best.

4.2.1. Installing from CD

This image contains only a base system, which means the minimal set of packages so that later from the system you can install any other package. It may be handy in case the network installer does not recognize your network card.

Pros: Quick and easy to install, even if you network card does not work out of the box.

Cons: You need to knowledge on how to extend the installed system to the average requirements.

4.2.2. Installing from DVD

This contains all packages from the main groups.

Pros: a full offline installation is possible.

Cons: Large amount of data must be downloaded, presumably some unnecessary packages too.

4.2.3. USB isohybrid image

The ISO images you would use to burn the CD now also double as the USB image as well. They are installed the same way as the old USB images were. All you do is copy them directly to the USB stick’s device node.

Pros: No need to burn any CD, you can reuse the media.

Cons: You have to be able to boot from USB.

Warning
Writing the image to a USB stick will destroy all the data on the drive. Be careful when specifying target devices / partitions othervise you can easily loose data.

The following command will install the image to the USB stick on any recent Linux system:

Important
Pay attention to see what /dev/sdX device your USB stick is, for example by having a look at the contents of the /dev/disk/by-id/ directory!
# dd if=frugalware-<version>-<arch>-cd1.iso of=/dev/sdX

You might be able to use a similar tool (like this) on Windows systems as well, but it seems only supports partitions not whole disks. If you can find a way to successfully write an USB image under Windows, please share with us.

4.2.4. TFTP image

This is a floppy image, for a very special case:

  • you want to do a network installation

  • you don’t want to / can’t use CDs

  • you don’t want to / can’t boot from an USB stick

  • you can boot from a network card, but your BIOS does not supports so

  • you have a floppy drive

Pros: In some cases this is the only way you can install Frugalware

Cons: You need a bootable network card and a working TFTP server

4.2.5. Fwbootstrap (self-contained chroot)

This is a tarball which has to be downloaded and unpacked. Mostly useful for developers who can compile packages in this build environment on a non-Frugalware host system.

Usage example:
  1. Download the tarball

    $ wget ftp://ftp5.frugalware.org/packages/frugalware/pub/frugalware/\
    frugalware-stable-iso/fwchroot-<version>-<arch>.tar.bz2
  2. Unpack it

    $ tar xvjf fwchroot-<version>-<arch>.tar.bz2
  3. Enter the chroot.

    $ cd fwchroot-<version>-<arch>
    $ ./fwbootstrap
  4. Use it (build a package or two)

  5. Exit from the shell and fwbootstrap will unmount the necessary dirs for you.

You can get a list of installed packages in the chroot with issuing the pacman-g2 -Q command.

4.2.6. A manual bootstrap

So you want a complete Frugalware installed into /mnt/foo. First of all, you must have a running Frugalware where you are able to do

# pacman-g2 -Sy core base -r /mnt/foo

which installs the core and base pkgs into it. But beware:

$ pacman-g2 -Qo /etc/profile.d/lang.sh
No package owns /etc/profile.d/lang.sh
$ pacman-g2 -Qo /etc/fstab
No package owns /etc/fstab

so you have to copy or forge them by hand.

A script is available to somewhat automate this bootstrap method.

Note
Manual bootstrap is the only way to install the arm port at the moment. Follow the qemu and real device arm-bootstrap howtos if you need more info.

4.3. Obtaining a source media

A Frugalware installation media can be obtained from several sources. You can download it freely via HTTP, FTP or rsync. You can also grab it via bittorrent, see Linuxtracker for example.

The following examples explains how you can get the iso images. You have to replace respectively $version$, $arch$ and $media$ to get the wanted iso image.

Via FTP:

$ wget ftp://ftp3.frugalware.org/mirrors/frugalware/pub/frugalware/\
frugalware-$version$-iso/frugalware-$version$-$arch$-$media$.iso

Via HTTP:

$ wget http://www5.frugalware.org/linux/frugalware/pub/frugalware/\
frugalware-$version$-iso/frugalware-$version$-$arch$-$media$.iso

Via rsync:

$ rsync -avP rsync://rsync4.frugalware.org/ftp/pub/linux/distributions/\
frugalware/frugalware-$version$-iso/frugalware-$version$-$arch$-$media$.iso ./

More info and the full list of mirrors can be found at our download page.

4.4. Using packages from CD/DVD

You have a skeleton system installed from CD/DVD, and you want to use the packages from the media afterwards. There are two methods.

First is the easiest, but needs quite a lot of space (and caution not to use pacman-g2 -Scc ;) ): mount the media and install all the .fpm’s found in frugalware-i686 (or frugalware-x86_64) dir to /var/cache/pacman/pkg.

Second is a bit more challenging, but more usable. Add a new line to /etc/pacman-g2/repos/frugalware before the other Server lines:

Server = file:///media/dvd/frugalware-i686

On x86_64, use this one:

Server = file:///media/dvd/frugalware-x86_64

The media should be mounted on /media/dvd, or change the Server lines appropriately.

Also you can only install packages then from the given media, so you have to insert the first CD if you install a package from the first CD and so on. This is something you should pay attention for.

4.5. The installation process

Important
Do not worry if you misconfigured something! Just press <Cancel> in the next dialog and you will see the menu. Just go back to the given part and you can reconfigure it.
  • After downloading and burning the CDs/DVD, insert the first CD/DVD to your CD/DVD drive, and reboot your computer. In the grub menu, you can disable the framebuffer, if a framebuffer with resolution 1024x768 is not suitable for your graphics card or monitor. After that, grub loads the kernel and the initrd image.

  • At the first dialog, you should select your language. If your language is not on the list, you should choose a language fits for you. You can change these options after installing too.

  • The next dialog is only a greetings. Just push <Enter>. Now it is time to select your keyboard type. Pick your one, then hit <OK>!

  • After selecting your keyboard map, setup searches for installation media automatically.

  • If you use a netinstall image follow these sub-steps. Otherwise jump to the partitioning point!

    Note
    These steps sets up your network options during the install. When you finished installing Frugalware the installer will ask for network options again. Those options will be the installed system’s options.
    1. Now you should select your connection type. The installer uses the netconfig utility. You can also find the documentation for netconfig in this documentation. See the part called: Networking.

    2. After setting up the network you can choose a mirror for downloading the packages. The installer will try other mirrors too. This feature is useful when you have got a fast local mirror or something similar.

  • The next step is partitioning. Frugalware setup displays a list of your hard disks, you should choose one of them to partition it with a program. You can select the partitioning program in the next dialog, currently fdisk and cfdisk are included. You should create at least one partition with type Linux, and it is recommended to create a swap partition (with type Linux swap). The swap size should be 500-1000MB. When you have finished partitioning, press <Continue>.

  • The following list displays your swap partitions, here you can choose which swap partitions are allowed to be used by Frugalware. Then setup formats your swap partitions. If you have no swap partition just press <Cancel>!

  • In the next window, you should select your root partition first, then you can choose if you wish to format it or keep the existing filesystem on it. After selecting the root partition, you can setup other Linux partitions, optionally format them, and set their mount points. Using a separate partition is supported for /boot, /home, /var, but not for /usr (see here for more info).

  • After having your Linux partitions mounted, you should do the same with your DOS/Windows ones. Setup will display a list of them, if any exists. You should simply choose a mount point for them here.

  • Now it is the time to select if you want to use expert menus or not. If you choose expert menu after selecting the categories you will be able to pick packages one-by-one from the selected categories. So if you select apps and base the installer will give you a list of packages in apps, when you finished picking the packages you will see the packages in base. After picking them the installation begins.

    If you choose the normal menu (it’s the default) then you will only see the groups, but not the individual packages. So after picking the groups installation starts.

  • The next step is to select package categories. If you will not use KDE or GNOME, you may probably want to disable them. In most cases, it is not a good idea to disable other categories. If you selected the expert menu you will see the package list after this dialog.

    Note
    If the group list is empty that means you probably misconfigured your network. Please go back and try to fix it. You can also test your connection if you press Alt+F2 and try to ping some servers.
  • Setup will install the packages your selected from the first CD. When it is done, you will be prompted to insert the next Frugalware install. If you have only one disc, feel free to abort installing packages, you can install anything else from the net later.

5. Upgrading from Frugalware 1.8 to 1.9

5.1. Preamble

The aim of this howto is to show how you can upgrade a Frugalware-1.8 (Cinna) system to Frugalware-1.9 (Arcturus).

5.2. Deprecated package removal

Some packages will not gracefully be removed because of strict dependencies. If you encounter a message such as this during a system upgrade:

:: foobar-subpkg: requires foobar=1.0.0

Then you will need to perform this command for each of the removed packages:

pacman-g2 -Rd <PACKAGES>

<PACKAGES> must be replaced by the names of each of the removed packages. This must be done prior to the system upgrade.

5.3. pacman-g2

The new release comes with an improved pacman-g2, you should install it first:

pacman-g2 -Sy pacman-g2

5.4. Upgrading the system

Now it’s time to upgrade the system itself:

pacman-g2 -Su
:: Starting local database upgrade...

You will be asked to replace some packages automatically. These are normal and you are expected to answer Y to these questions (or just hit ENTER).

After this, the list of to-be-upgraded packages is displayed. Just hit enter and wait. Make some tea, it can take a while. :-)

5.5. Updating config files

pacman-g2 does not touch configuration files in case you customized them. You should run

find /etc -name '*.pacnew'

and update each configuration file based on the .pacnew version. Once you’re done with one, you should remove the .pacnew file.

There is no longer a symlink provided with our packages for /bin/vi and /usr/bin/vi. It is recommend that you run the viconfig tool in order to select a new editor for these symlinks. It will also set the default value for EDITOR and VISUAL environmental variables.

5.7. default console font change

We have changed the default console font. If you wish to change yours to match our new default, edit /etc/vconsole.conf and change or add the FONT line to read this:

FONT=ter-v16b

5.8. 10-evdev.conf

We have removed the usage of 10-evdev.conf, as we are moving to how systemd handles XKB configuration. It is recommended that you run the kbconfig tool in order to select a new vconsole and XKB keymap. If you need to find your existing keymap, check the contents of /etc/vconsole.conf for your current KEYMAP.

When you are finished, remove the old 10-evdev.conf file.

rm -f /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf

5.9. xorg-set-resolution

This is a new service which sets your default X resolution to match your kernel framebuffer resolution, if you are using a custom one via the video boot parameter. If this is not something you want, you can disable it via this command:

systemctl disable xorg-set-resolution.service

5.10. PRETTY_HOSTNAME

New installs now setup the PRETTY_HOSTNAME in addition to the HOSTNAME. If you wish to do this as well, use hostconfig from fvbeutils.

5.11. systemd default display manager

New installs now setup the default display manager using the new system of having a unique systemd service for each display manager. To upgrade to this new behavior, you must first disable the old display manager service like so:

systemctl disable display-manager-legacy.service

To enable a display manager using the new system, you can simply run the dmconfig tool from fvbeutils. If you prefer to do this directly, you can instead do it like so, assuming that lightdm is your preference:

systemctl enable lightdm.service

If you wish to use a different display manager, then replace the lightdm.service with the appropriate systemd service name for your display manager of choice.

Finally, delete the old display manager configuration file as shown below:

rm -f /etc/sysconfig/desktop

5.12. network interface changes

New systemd now changes network interface names from eth0 and such to something that is more consistent across reboots. As such, you will need to update any services you have configured to use the old interface names in order to match the new interface names.

5.13. netconfig removal

Our old netconfig system has finally been removed. We are now using NetworkManager as our default network configuration system. To ease the transition, we recommend using the new nmconfig from fvbeutils. It provides a simple profile editor for NetworkManager. It should be compatible with the profiles generated by the GUI editors for NetworkManager. If you need to be able to perform NetworkManager commands from a terminal then see the man page for nmcli.

Next, you will need to enable the NetworkManager service as this is not enabled automatically upon upgrade. It is only enabled automatically upon initial install. It can be enabled manually with this command:

systemctl enable NetworkManager.service

5.14. bluez package

The bluez bluetooth service is now enabled upon initial install. If you wish to utilize your bluetooth hardware, you should also enable the service. To do so, use this command:

systemctl enable bluetooth.service

5.15. lesspipe

This package now supports source highlighting by default if source-highlight is installed. If this is not something you want, you can disable it by editting /etc/profile and removing -R from the LESS environmental variable.

5.16. The reboot

Since the kernel is upgraded, too, you have to reboot your machine.

Done!

6. Basic configuration

6.1. Introduction

After the installation of the packages, Frugalware setup will configure your new Frugalware system. If you installed the packages manually, then you’ll have to perform those configuration steps manually.

Note
If any problem occurs, there is a debug console on tty4, you can see that by pressing Alt-F4. You can switch back by hitting Alt-F1.

6.2. GRUB

The first step is to install GRUB onto your hard disk. There are four options here: installing to the MBR, the root partition, a floppy or simply skipping. Installing to the MBR is the good choice if you want Frugalware to manage your computer’s booting. The root is a good idea if you want to install GRUB into your root partition. In this case, GRUB will not modify your existing boot manager. Floppy is a good idea for example if you don’t have any boot manager installed, but you want to leave your MBR unmodified.

6.3. Kernel modules

After the installation of GRUB, the installer will configure your kernel modules. This means that an information dialog appears, but nothing more.

6.4. Accounts and passwords

After module configuration, you should change the root password. This is very important as there is no default password. If you skip this step, anybody will be able to login as root.

After this step, you can create a regular (also known as non-root) user. It’s highly recommended to create one, and log in as a regular user. If a command should be run as root, you should use su or sudo under console, and gksu or kdesu under X.

6.5. Network

After this, setup will configure your network settings. Setup simply runs the netconfig utility, which is described in the Networking section.

6.6. Timezone

If network installation is done, we should configure the system’s time. This means two actions. First, you should decide if the hardware (BIOS) clock is set to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). If yes, select yes here. If the hardware clock is set to the current local time (this is how most PCs are set up), say no here. If you are not sure what is this, you should answer no here.

6.7. Mouse

The next step is to configure your mouse. The configuration will take effect on the console mouse services (gpm) and on the X server. The setting is done by xconfig later.

6.8. Graphical interface

If you have installed an X server (by default xorg), the setup will run xconfig. For more information on xconfig, see the section Graphical interface (X11).

7. Pacman-G2

7.1. Basics

Frugalware comes with Pacman-G2 package manager. Pacman-G2 is a fork of the not-yet-released cvs version of the complete rewrite of pacman-g1 by Aurelien Foret (the old monolithic pacman-g1 is written by Judd Vinet). See the README for details. If you want to do anything with packages, you’ll always have to use the pacman-g2 command. Here are some basic actions with pacman-g2:

Actions usually used with remote installation from an FTP server:

# pacman-g2 -Sy

Updates the package database. Before searching for packages or installing them from an FTP server, you will have to use this command.

# pacman-g2 -Su

Upgrades all packages that are currently installed but a newer version of the package is available on the FTP server.

# pacman-g2 -Syu

The combination of the above two, that is the command most users use daily.

$ pacman-g2 -Sup

Prints the URL of all packages that pacman-g2 should download. This way you can download the packages anywhere and then just copy them to /var/cache/pacman/pkg. This is very useful if you have limited bandwidth at your computer, but you can access high bandwidth elsewhere.

# pacman-g2 -S sendmail

Installs sendmail with all of its dependencies from the FTP server. If it conflicts with any package, you will be asked if pacman-g2 is allowed to remove them.

$ pacman-g2 -Ss perl

Searches in the package database (on the FTP server). This example will probably display the perl package and all perl modules. Regular expression based search is also supported.

Of course, you can treat packages as normal files, and you can manually add/remove/etc them. Here are some examples:

# pacman-g2 -U zsh-4.2.1-1.fpm

Adds (or if it’s already installed, upgrades) the zsh package, which is located in the current directory.

# pacman-g2 -R qt

Removes the qt package.

$ pacman-g2 -Qs perl

Shows every installed packages whose name contains the string perl.

Generally, if you want to turn off checking for conflicting files, you should use the -f parameter, and if you want to turn off all dependency checking, you should use the -d switch.

$ pacman-g2 -h

This displays all the switches we discussed above, and a lot more. Once again, these are only the basics. You can also use pacman-g2 -Sh or similar to get help on a particular task.

Note
Full documentation for pacman-g2 can be reached by issuing man pacman-g2.

7.2. Apt - pacman-g2 cross reference

For those who are familiar with the apt package management tool, here is a quick cross-reference.

Action Apt command Pacman-G2 command

Refresh the package database:

apt-get update

pacman-g2 -Sy

Upgrade currently installed packages:

apt-get upgrade

pacman-g2 -Su

Install a new package:

apt-get install foo

pacman-g2 -S foo

Remove a package:

apt-get remove foo

pacman-g2 -Rc foo

Search in the full package database:

apt-cache search foo

pacman-g2 -Ss foo

Install a package from a file:

dpkg -i foo.deb

pacman-g2 -A foo.fpm

Clean the package cache:

apt-get clean

pacman-g2 -Sc

8. Networking

8.1. Initializing the network card

In most cases, configuring your network card will be done automatically by udev. This means that during every system boot your network card will be detected, and the necessary modules will be loaded. If you want, you can load your network card’s module manually by editing the /etc/sysconfig/modules file and put the module in the blacklist by editing /etc/sysconfig/blacklist. Configuring any interface on your card will be the task of the netconfig utility. Initializing your card ends here.

8.2. The netconfig utility

Configuring your network settings is done by the netconfig utility.

  1. First, we have to give a name to your computer. The name must consist of at least two parts, separated by a dot (.).

  2. In the next dialog, you should choose how your machine connects to the network. If you have an internal network card and an assigned IP address, gateway, and DNS, use static to enter these values. If your IP address is assigned by a DHCP server (commonly used by cable modem services, not equal to DSL services), select dhcp. In case you’ve got a DSL connection (eg. ADSL) choose the dsl option! Finally, if you do not have a network card, choose the lo choice. The lo is also the correct choice if you are using a PCMCIA network card.

    When you set up the network, the first question will be the interface you want to set up. It is usually eth0, but it can differ when you set up wireless interfaces for example. If you set up a wireless card netconfig will also ask your ESSID and encryption key.

    1. If you chose static, you must give your IP address, the netmask of your local network, your gateway address (you may leave it blank) and the IP address of your primary name server (you can add more nameservers later by editing the /etc/resolv.conf file) and then the configuration is finished.

    2. If you chose dhcp, you can optionally give your dhcp hostname, however, netconfig will not ask more questions about your network, since all other data will be provided by the DHCP server.

    3. If you chose dsl, you must give your username, something like someone@provider.net. Then you’ll have to specify the network interface (usually eth0) through which the ADSL connection script will try to communicate with your ADSL modem. Then enter your password twice.

    4. If you chose lo, you don’t have to answer any questions.

  3. Finally, netconfig will write all your network configuration files. If you want to edit your settings by hand, the interface information is stored in the /etc/sysconfig/network directory. There is only one file there called default in most cases. It’s because you can set up more than one profile. It’s very useful if you have a laptop so that you can set up options for all networks you use.

8.3. Basic firewall configuration

Frugalware comes with a firewall configuration working out of the box. This allows all outgoing connections, and incoming packets for established connections. It does not allow normal incoming packages for any ports. The firewall configuration is at /etc/sysconfig/firewall.

Note
You will not find this file if you have not installed iptables package as this is an iptables firewall.

Let’s see an example: you would like to allow others to ssh into your computer. Edit /etc/sysconfig/firewall, remove the hashmark (#) from the beginning of the line under the # ssh description, and restart the firewall:

# service firewall restart

The same applies for Apache or any other services.

If you would like to have any advanced firewall settings, configure your firewall as root with iptables then save your config as root with:

# iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/firewall
Warning
It will overwrite your existing configuration! It is strongly recommended to make a backup of /etc/sysconfig/firewall before saving your settings.

9. Graphical interface (X11)

9.1. Configuring your graphics card

If you install X, a /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d directory will be created for you, containing XOrg configuration fragment files. In most cases the default configuration will be enough for you, but you can place your own fragments there if you want to manually fine-tune some of the settings.

A common problem is to use a keyboard layout different to the default of the locale, for example you have a non-English locale, thus the default keyboard layout isn’t English, either, but you want to have such one. In that case you need to edit the evdev configuration:

# vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf

and change the xkb_layout option there to us, for example.

9.2. 3D acceleration, binary drivers

If there is built-in 3d acceleration support for your card in X, UDev will detect the necessary drivers and X will enable support for them.

If you have an NVIDIA card, you probably need the manufacturer’s binary drivers. Obtaining the NVIDIA binary driver is fairly simple:

# pacman-g2 -Sy nvidia

9.3. Allow root login in KDM/GDM

By default, no root login is permitted on the GUI, the recommended way of running graphical programs as root is to use gksu or kdesu.

To enable it anyway, the following lines should be edited:

For KDM (/etc/kde/config/kdm/kdmrc)

AllowRootLogin=false

modify to

AllowRootLogin=true

For GDM (/etc/gdm/gdm.conf)

AllowRoot=false

modify to

AllowRoot=true

10. Sound

10.1. Configuring the sound card

Frugalware uses the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) subsystem for sound cards. For older applications, the Open Sound System (OSS) compatibility modules are loaded, but Frugalware does not contain native OSS support.

Finding and loading the necessary module for your sound card is fairly simple. The process is mostly the same as setting up your network card. During every boot, the hotplug scripts will detect your sound card, but, of course, you can take the automatically loaded module to blacklist, and load it manually by editing /etc/sysconfig/modules.

10.2. Volume configuration with alsamixer

By default, your sound card can be very loud. You can use alsamixer to set the volume of your card. Use the < and > keys to mute a channel, up and down keys to set the volume and left or right keys to switch to another channel. You can quit alsamixer by hitting the Esc key.

From now, during shutdown, Frugalware saves your settings, but you can store or load them any time with the

# service alsa save

and the

# service alsa load

commands.

11. Printing

Frugalware uses the Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) for handling printers and to manage printing.

11.1. Before you start

Here comes a few advice depending on what manufacturer made your printer.

11.1.1. Hewlett-Packard

You need hpijs at least, but you can also install hplip for advanced HP support. Also if you have got some priter&scanner machine it’s a good idea to use hplip.

11.1.2. Canon

Most likely you need one of the bjfilter packages. The following list tell you which package you should use.

  • bjfilter-2.2: Canon Pixus 550i / 850i / 950i (i550 / i850 / i950) and iP90 Driver

  • bjfilter-2.4: Canon Pixus 560i / 860i / 960i (i560 / i860 / i960) Driver

  • bjfilter-2.5: Canon Pixus iP3100 / iP4100 / iP8600 (and Pixma iP1000 / iP1500) Driver

  • bjfilter: Canon Pixus iP2200 / iP4200 / iP6600D / iP7500 / MP500 Driver

Please report us if your printer does not listed or listed, but in the wrong line!

11.1.3. Epson

If you own an Epson Color InkJet Printer you need the pipslite package. After installing the package do not forget to restart cups and start the ekp daemon!

sudo service cups restart
sudo service ekpd start
sudo service ekpd add
Note
Till now nobody confirmed that this package actually works.

11.1.4. Samsung

The Samsung printer driver for cups is called splix. After installing it and restarting cups you will find your printer when you add it in cups.

11.2. Configuring the printer

  1. Open your favorite Internet browser and go to http://localhost:631. This is the Web interface of CUPS.

  2. Select Administration from the top menu. If a username is required, type root, and give your root password.

  3. You can do almost everything here in connection with printing. In our example, we will add a new local printer.

  4. Click Add Printer, type in a name and optionally fill the Location and Description lines, then click on continue.

  5. Select Device, in most cases it is Parallel Port #1 for older models and one of the USB ports for newer ones. I you have got a USB printer cups will write the printer name next to the proper port.

  6. On the next page, select your vendor and your printer type (the driver/filter).

To set up a remote Windows share with password, give a string like this for location (the share name is the printer’s assigned name on the remote system): smb://user:passwd@Netbios_Name_or_ip_address/Share_name

Notice that, when you view the printer configuration, the credentials will not be shown but will be used.

11.3. My printer is not listed

If your vendor or printer type isn’t listed in the wizard, you have to check the OpenPrinting site whether if is supported under Linux or not. Usually it’s enough to install the proper printer driver (see above) or gutenprint. After installing do not forget to restart cups:

# service cups restart

If it’s not on the page mentioned above, then try to Google after. If listed but said to be "paperweight", then there is nothing to do. If it is supported and said to be working on the site, then please file a bug report with your printer details. While we fix the bug, you can install the driver (the ppd) by yourself.

On the left side, select Printer Listings. Then select your device’s vendor and proper type. On the results page, select download PPD. After download, there will be a file named someting_that_ends_with.ppd.

Save the PPD file in the directory /usr/share/cups/model/. The PPD file doesn’t have to be executable, but it should be world-readable and should have the file extension ".ppd".

If you do not want to search ppd, try to install foomatic-filters-ppds package. It has a bunch of ppd files for various printers.

Then restart the CUPS service: su -c \'service cups restart\'. The driver installation is now completed, now you can add your printer via the web interface. A good howto can be found at http://www.linux-foundation.org/en/OpenPrinting/Database/CUPSDocumentation.

11.4. Multiple pages on a single sheet

This is also known as n-up printing. If an application doesn’t support it natively, print the document to a file as PostScript and use psnup:

$ psnup -2 print.ps > print2page.ps

The first option specifies the number of pages stacked on one physical sheet, the second is the filename of the original one-sided document, and the last is the n-up (two-sided) document. You can then print it with

$ cupsdoprint -P nameofprinter foo.ps

or open it in your favourite PS viewer.

11.5. Troubleshooting

If something goes wrong, check out CUPS log at /var/log/cups. There is a verbose error log and an access log, too.

12. The hotplug subsystem

12.1. udev

The /dev directory under Frugalware is a ramdisk. Every device node is created automatically during the system boot by the hotplug subsystem, more specifically, by udev. It means there won’t be unnecessary device nodes in /dev, but it also means that if you create a device node manually, it will exist only until the next shutdown/reboot.

If you want to force Frugalware to create a device node "manually" during each boot, you must create a device file under /lib/udev/devices: it will be copied on each boot automatically.

The udev needs sysfs, so it will only work with the 2.6.x kernel series. Do not try to run udev on Frugalware with kernel series 2.4.x.

12.2. Pen/Thumbdrives

Pendrives (also known as thumbdrives, or USB keys) are well-supported through the hotplug scripts and udev. If you insert a pendrive into the USB slot, udev will create a device node for it in /dev. Most pendrives contain only one partition and their filesystem is vfat. In most cases, the pendrive will behave like a SCSI disc. It means, you can find the pendrive under /dev/sda and its first partition under /dev/sda1. Adding the following line to /etc/fstab:

/dev/sda1 /media/pendrive auto defaults,noauto,user 0 0

will allow users to mount their pendrive if the device node exists (if the device is inserted into the slot).

If you use KDE, Gnome or XFCE4 they will handle automatic mounting of such devices. You should not edit /etc/fstab as automounting will not work for you. For blackbox, fluxbox, englightenment, e17 and other smaller window manager users there is ivman for automounting, but it may not work as well as in KDE, Gnome, XFCE4. See also the automounting part of the documentation.

12.3. Digital cameras

Typically, there are two types of digital cameras. Some of them support both access methods, others use only one of them. First, most of the cameras can be treated as a pendrive (USB Mass Storage device), you can mount them and copy the pictures from them easily.

Other cameras support the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP). You can grab the pictures from them (and do lots of other actions) with gphoto2, if your model is supported. (If it’s not available on your system, a simple su -c \'pacman-g2 -S gphoto2\' will install it onto your system.)

12.4. Automounting: D-BUS, HAL and Ivman; Gnome and KDE

D-BUS is a simple IPC (inter-process communication) library based on messages. HAL is a hardware abstraction layer which uses D-BUS. Ivman is based on HAL and uses pmount ("policy mount"), which is a wrapper around the standard mount program which permits normal users to mount removable devices without an existing /etc/fstab entry.

Ivman is a daemon to automount CD-ROMs and DVDs when inserted in a drive, or play audio CDs or video DVDs automatically. It is 100% userspace, so it is a safe replacement for submount.

If you want to change the default settings, all config files are located in /etc/ivman. They are plain XML files, just read them, everything is quite self-explanatory.

Automounting also happens with KDE and Gnome, but their respective VFS implementation does that, not ivman. Ivman is useful for other windowing systems where is no support for such a feature.

13. The init scripts, bootup

13.1. About the kernel

The Linux kernel is in the kernel package. We use as few patches as possible to stay close to the vanilla kernel. We also use splashy instead of well known bootsplash. The kernel contains compiled-in support for most IDE controllers, but all low-level SCSI drivers are compiled as a module. If Frugalware’s kernel doesn’t contain built-in support for your controller, you can compile your own kernel. Don’t worry, it’s fairly simple.

  1. After setup is finished, before hitting ENTER to reboot, switch to tty2 by pressing Alt-F2 and press ENTER to get a shell.

  2. Change your root directory to /mnt/target:

    # chroot /mnt/target
  3. The source of your kernel (with additional patches applied) can be found at /usr/src/linux. So go to the /usr/src/linux directory and enter the configuration menu by typing make menuconfig. Inside it, select the driver you don’t want to compile as a module anymore, and exit from the menu with saving changes.

  4. Compile your kernel with the make command. This may take several minutes.

  5. Copy your new kernel to /boot by typing the following command:

    # cp /usr/src/linux/arch/$yourarch$/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz

    On i686 and x86_64, $yourarch$ has to be replaced by x86.

13.2. Init scripts and services

In Frugalware, init is provided by systemd, its service files are always called something.service and they are located in /lib/systemd/system. They are used to setup the environment and manage system services.

The services are UNIX daemons that provide various functionality. The spectrum of their actions is very large. Synchronizing your system clock, running your webserver, running the virus scanner, all of these are services and they offer much much more.

In the following examples we will explain how to alter the running state of a given service. You will have to replace $service_name$ with the wanted service name, for example crond.service. As you will see the syntax is simple, and you may get more help looking at the systemctl manual doing:

$ man systemctl
Important
Later in this document you will see how to alter the configuration of these services so that they follow your needs. You should better learn how to control them, but don’t be afraid, the syntax is really simple, and you will learn it in less then a minute.

13.2.1. Controlling a service execution

Services can be started, restarted and stopped, so that you can control what your system has to offer.

To start a service, simply do:

# systemctl start $service_name$

To restart a service, simply do:

# systemctl restart $service_name$

To stop a service, simply do:

# systemctl stop $service_name$

As you can see, controlling a service execution is pretty simple.

13.2.2. Controlling a service execution on system boot

Controlling the automatic execution of services on system startup is not much more difficult.

To add a service for automatic execution on system startup, simply do:

# systemctl enable $service_name$

To delete a service from automatic execution on system startup, simply do:

# systemctl disable $service_name$

To check if the service is enabled, simply do:

# systemctl is-enabled $service_name$

13.3. System boot, targets

If you don’t pass any extra init=/path/to/init parameters to it, the kernel will start /sbin/init as the final step of the kernel boot sequence. According to /etc/systemd/system/default.target, init will run:

  1. each service file required by basic.target

  2. each service file required by the default target. This is set to graphical.target by default. Here is the list of available targets:

halt.target = halt
emergency.target = similar to 'init=/bin/sh'
rescue.target = single user mode
multi-user.target = multiuser mode (text mode)
graphical.target = multiuser mode, X11 with KDM/GDM/XDM (default Frugalware target)
reboot.target = reboot
Note
emergency.target has the advantage that you can boot the system without a reboot later.

If X11 is configured, prefdm.service will start one of the desktop managers, as configured in /etc/sysconfig/desktop.

13.4. GRUB gfxmenu

Frugalware comes with a nice graphical grub menu (thanks to SuSE’s gfxmenu developers). If you don’t like it, you can disable it by commenting out the gfxmenu initialization line in /boot/grub/menu.lst.

So for example:

Before: gfxmenu (hd0,5)/boot/grub/message
After: #gfxmenu (hd0,5)/boot/grub/message

13.5. Splashy

Frugalware uses splashy to display a nice splash screen and a progress bar instead of text messages during the boot procedure. Splashy is completely user-space, so there is no need for patching the kernel. If you dislike it or want to switch it off for whatever reason add nosplashy for your kernel parameters in /boot/grub/menu.lst. For example:

kernel (hd0,2)/vmlinuz root=/dev/hda5 ro quiet nosplashy

14. How to contribute

If you appreciate our work, please consider contributing. Below are examples of ways in which you can help the Frugalware project. If you want to help in a way that’s not described here, please tell us of your idea in an email to the Frugalware users' mailing list, or add an entry to the Frugalware forums.

14.1. Donations of money

Donations of money are welcome and will be used to cover costs such as domain name registration, hosting costs (hardware, bandwidth etc). If you want to donate, please use the "Donation" link on the Frugalware home page.

14.2. Translation

Comprehensive, multi-lingual documentation is very important to us because we want Frugalware to be available to as many people as possible. If you have the required linguistic knowledge, you could help translate various pieces of work. These include our own applications, documentation, web site etc.

14.3. Application packaging

In the Bug Tracking System, are requests for packages, from Frugalware’s users. The process of making packages is well documented in the http://frugalware.org/docs/stable/index-devel [Frugalware Developer Documentation], and with some GNU/Linux experience, you could contribute in that way. Existing package maintainers are always available to help you, especially if you’re new to packaging.

14.4. Developing

Frugalware has several of its own applications, including: * An ncurses installer; * A GUI installer (fwife); * A GUI package management tool (gfpm); * A command-line package manager (pacman-g2); * A GUI runlevel manager (gservice).

Help in further developing and enhancing these applications is welcome.

14.5. Donating hardware

By sending us some wanted hardware (see donations), you can make testing packages easier, or speed up the package creation process within a specific architecture.

14.6. Artwork

We usually update our artwork (background images, grub splash, desktop manager themes, window manager splashes and so on) for each release. If you are skilled in this area, you’re welcome to join the artwork team.

14.7. Support

If you have time and knowledge, monitor the forums, read the mailing list posts, hang around on IRC and try to answer peoples' questions.

14.8. Find bugs

If you find bugs, you can help by submitting well-written bug reports, see the Reporting Bugs section for more info.

15. The Frugalware Bug Reporting HOWTO

15.1. Introduction

The aim of this HOWTO is to explain how to choose a task name and what to include in a feature request/bugreport to help Frugalware developers speed up the process of fixing a bug or fulfilling a feature request.

15.2. Where

The URL of our Bug tracking system is:

http://bugs.frugalware.org/

15.3. General

Before opening a task, use the search function, maybe there is a task for your bug/feature. In that case just add a comment such as "I can reproduce this, too." or "I would enjoy this feature, too."

There are a few topics which are often requested / reported but we have a good reason not fixing / implementing them. You can see a list of such topics in the wiki.

If you’d like to report an outdated package, first check that it isn’t listed on this site. If the package is listed please do not report it as we know there is a new version and we will update it as soon as possible.

Write bugreports in English, please. This is the only language all developers speak.

15.4. Bugreport

Please include the following things, unless you know what you are doing:

  1. Description of Problem - never say "does not work", quote the error message

  2. Steps to reproduce the problem

  3. Actual Results

  4. Expected Results

  5. How often does this happen?

  6. Additional Information

The default arch is i686 and the default version is -current. If these are not true, don’t forget to change them!

If you report a -current installer bug, then maybe -current is not enough, please specify the snapshot date.

If you found a security bug, then use the [SEC] prefix in the task name.

15.5. Feature Requests

Please don’t request more than one package in a feature request. Open a task for every package. (Of course you don’t have to open task for dependencies if they are also missing from our packages.)

If you request a package, please include:

  1. The name of the application (yes, "more games" is not enough!)

  2. The URL of the application

  3. Optionally a short note about why you think this package would be interesting for others, too

If you have a FrugalBuild for the package already, then after opening the task, upload it as an attachment. In this case, please prefix your task name with [FB], because this way it’ll be reviewed sooner.

Alternatively, you can post your FrugalBuild to the frugalware-devel mailing list for review, that can be handy if you want to submit more and more buildscripts - finally to become a developer if possible. Opening a task for your FrugalBuild is still fine if you want us to maintain it after the initial version is accepted.

Please don’t link other distribution’s buildscripts when you request a package. That information is useless for us in most cases and if you don’t include such links, you make our life easier.

15.5.1. Don’t request

Please don’t request custom kernels. We try to use as few patches as possible. See man kernel.sh as a reference on building your own kernel using various patchsets. Also a tutorial is available. Really, building such a kernel usually requires a buildscript of only 5 lines!

15.6. Pacman-g2 problems

If you get a crash from our package manager then we need a backtrace from gdb. Here are the instructions to get a backtrace:

  • Find the command line that triggers the crash. For example: pacman-g2 -Sy

  • Get the pacman-g2 git repo and compile it with debug symbols enabled:

    $ git clone http://frugalware.org/git/pub/other/pacman-g2/pacman-g2
    $ cd pacman-g2
    $ sh autogen.sh
    $ ./configure --enable-debug
    $ make
  • Then run pacman-g2 in gdb and get the trace:

    $ cd src/pacman-g2
    $ sudo libtool gdb ./pacman-g2
    > run -Sy
  • When pacman-g2 crashes, get the trace by typing bt. Here is an example:

    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x0805035e in pacman_sync (targets=0x0) at sync.c:354
    354             *p = 1;
    (gdb) bt
    #0  0x0805035e in pacman_sync (targets=0x0) at sync.c:354
    #1  0x08054594 in main (argc=2, argv=0xbfee1844) at pacman.c:609
  • Attach the output of bt to your bugreport.

15.7. Fixed in git

Your feature request / bugreport may be closed with a "Fixed in git …" message. Git is our source control management software (just like CVS). If your task is not considered to be critical, then it will be fixed/implemented only in git, without increasing the package release. This means that it will be automatically included in the next release.

16. Mobile computers

16.1. Battery, buttons, thermal management

Notebook users are usually interested in the state of their battery. Getting the power button and the lid’s sensor of its closed state to emit events is also nice. Some notebooks only shut down their continously running fans and operate only if needed if the thermal module is loaded.

Usually these modules are automatically loaded by udev. If it does not do so for you, then add the following lines to /etc/sysconfig/modules to get modules loaded at system startup:

battery
ac
button
thermal

The next task is to enable the acpid service:

# service acpid add

Then the easiest way is to reboot, or if you don’t want do do so:

# modprobe battery
# modprobe ac
# service hald stop
# service dbus stop
# service acpid start
# service dbus start
# service hald start

The only remaining task is to start a client: if you’re on console, try the acpi command, or the relevant applet of your favorite window manager.

16.2. Conserving power

The major consumers of power in a notebook are the LCD (size and brightness level), the CPU, hard drives, wireless transceivers like WiFi, Bluetooth, Infrared and the GPU if you have a powerful one.

You can conserve a fair amount of power if you lessen the brightness level of the LCD screen. Some notebooks can remember two settings of this level, one when the equipment operates from battery and another when powered from AC.

The CPUs have some sort of power saving capabilities, the most basic is "CPU throttling". Common on Intel mobile Celeron CPUs, only ACPI is needed. Klaptop has a setting for it, where you can specify the level.

Letting the HDD spin down gives little extra battery operating time, but frequent spinups (data access) and spindowns wears the disk. Only useful in situations where there is no frequent need for data on hdd like holding a presentation.

16.3. Hibernation

Hibernating your computer can cause data loss or severe filesystem damage if things go wrong. It’s highly advised that first, you should consider if hibernating is worth the effort at all. Try it on a fresh installation first, instead of a production system.

From kernel/suspend.c:

* BIG FAT WARNING *********************************************************
*
* If you have unsupported (*) devices using DMA...
*                              ...say goodbye to your data.
*
* If you touch anything on disk between suspend and resume...
*                              ...kiss your data goodbye.
*
* If your disk driver does not support suspend... (IDE does)
*                              ...you'd better find out how to get along
*                                 without your data.
*
* If you change kernel command line between suspend and resume...
*                              ...prepare for nasty fsck or worse.
*
* If you change your hardware while system is suspended...
*                              ...well, it was not good idea.
*
* (*) suspend/resume support is needed to make it safe.

You have been warned. If you are still not discouraged, read on!

First, you need to create a swap partition (if you don’t have any yet). You have to add an extra resume=/dev/swappart kernel parameter to /boot/grub/menu.lst. For example, on my machine the old line was:

kernel (hd0,2)/boot/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/hda3 quiet

The new line:

kernel (hd0,2)/boot/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/hda3 quiet resume=/dev/hda2

After the above are done, you must reboot. The hibernation can be started with:

echo shutdown > /sys/power/disk; echo disk > /sys/power/state

and next time you boot your kernel it should resume. For more info, look at /usr/src/linux/Documentation/power/swsusp.txt. It requires the kernel documentation, which can be installed issuing the pacman-g2 -S kernel-docs command as root.

17. Packages

The following sections describe the configuration of some packages.

17.1. acoc

In order to use acoc you should start it with

$ acoc <command>

for example, or you can create an alias like this:

alias pacman='acoc pacman'

17.2. amavisd-new

For the first initial setup you may want to use our amavisconf utility.

From amavisd-new-2.5.2-1 we no longer use a random uid/gid, but dedicated ones. Because of this amavis service will not start if you have it installed before, so you have to correct this by issuing these commands:

groupmod -g 40 amavis
usermod -u 40 -g 40 amavis
chown -R amavis:amavis /var/lib/amavis
chown -R amavis:amavis /var/lock/amavis

You should chown any other amavis-owned stuff you may have lying around, these are only the default ones.

17.3. android-sdk

Setting up Android SDK :

# repoman upd
# repoman merge android-sdk
# pacman-g2 -A android-sdk-r11-1-i686.fpm

You should open a new shell to have android-sdk/tools/ in the path. After that, just type "adb" (not "./adb") as mentionned in following links.

If you want to use your Android phone as a proxy, see these pages :

17.4. apache

17.4.1. How to configure Apache

  1. These steps require root privileges, so use su - to get a root shell.

  2. The Apache server isn’t started by default. You can change this with the

    # service httpd add

    command.

  3. We don’t want to reboot, so start it manually:

    # service httpd start
    Starting Apache web server (no SSL)                                      [ OK ]

You have finished if you don’t need SSL support.

17.4.2. Setting up SSL support for Apache

  1. Creating the certifications:

    # cd /etc/httpd/conf/
    # sh mkcert.sh
    
    Signature Algorithm ((R)SA or (D)SA) [R]:
    
         Here we can accept the default RSA signature algorithm first. Then
         we have to fill out some fields. There are quite a few fields but
         you can leave most of them blank. If you enter '.', the field will
         be left blank.
           1) Country Name (2 letter code) [XY]:
    
              Give the 2-letter code of our contry (for example US)
    
           2) State or Province Name (full name) [Snake Desert]:
    
              We type our state.
    
           3) Locality Name (eg, city) [Snake Town]:
    
             The name of our city.
    
           4) Organization Name (eg, company) [Snake Oil, Ltd]:
    
              Our organization's name.
    
           5) Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) [Webserver Team]:
    
              Our section's name.
    
           6) Common Name (eg, FQDN) [www.snakeoil.com]:
    
              Important: Give a real address here, otherwise you'll get
              warnings in your browser!
    
           7) Email Address (eg, `name@FQDN') [`www@snakeoil.com']:
    
              I usually give the email address of the webmaster here.
              (webmaster@domain.com)
    
           8) Certificate Validity (days) [365]:
    
              In most cases, one year will be good.
    
              Then, we should choose the version of our certificate:
    
              Certificate Version (1 or 3) [3]:
    
              The default 3 will be good, so just hit enter. In the next
              step we can  encrypt our private key:
    
              Encrypt the private key now? [Y/n]:
    
              The keys will not be readable by users, so we can leave this
              step out.

    So the following files are created:

    /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/server.key (keep this file private!)
    /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
    /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.csr/server.csr
  2. Enable SSL in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: Open the file with your favorite editor, and search the followings at about line 1040:

    # Uncomment this if you want SSL support!
    #<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    #       Include /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.conf
    #</IfModule>

    Uncomment them.

  3. Now we should restart Apache:

    # service httpd restart
  4. Then we can check if the task was successful:

    $ elinks https://localhost/

    This should show the default homapage, received via SSL :)

17.4.3. Self-signed Apache certificate

This must be done as root.

# openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024

Enter "foobar" twice as passphrase.

# openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr

Enter "foobar" when asked for passphrase, answer the questions. Leave "challenge password" "and optional company name" empty.

# cp server.key server.key.org
# openssl rsa -in server.key.org -out server.key

Enter "foobar" when asked for passphrase.

# openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
# cp server.crt /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/
# cp server.key /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/
# service httpd stop
# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Uncomment the marked three lines around line 1044 (look for "SSL support").

# service httpd restart

Don’t forget to open port 443 on your firewall, if any. (Based on How to create a self-signed SSL Certificate…, tested on frugalware-current 2007-02-14.)

17.5. asciidoc

Asciidoc has a number of configuration files under /etc/asciidoc and it’s easy to get lost in that directory.

Regarding pdf (dblatex) generation, here are some options you can set:

  • If you want to avoid the "PDF by dblatex" picture on the front page, edit /etc/asciidoc/dblatex/asciidoc-dblatex.xsl:

<xsl:param name="doc.publisher.show">0</xsl:param>
  • If you want to avoid the "Revision History" page, add:

<xsl:param name="latex.output.revhistory">0</xsl:param>
  • If you want to avoid the "Contents" page, add:

<xsl:param name="doc.toc.show">0</xsl:param>
  • If you want to avoid the front page, sadly you can’t do it from a configuration file, but for now you can edit /usr/share/dblatex/latex/style/docbook.sty. Change the \maketitle macro to:

\def\maketitle{
  \def\edhead{}
  \DBKdomitete
}

17.6. autojump

17.6.1. AUTOJUMP

A cd command that learns

Please read the official README or the manual.

Installation

Add the line :

source /etc/profile

to ~/.bashrc or ~/.zshrc if it isn’t already there.

17.7. avahi

Warning
If you have rlocate installed on your system, Avahi will not run and therefore Zeroconf functionality in programs will be disabled. If you want this functionality, then please uninstall rlocate.

Also, If you are using iptables, please uncomment this line in /etc/sysconfig/firewall:

#-A INPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT

After that do not forget to restart iptables with:

# service firewall restart

17.8. b43-fwcutter

Since version 2.6.24, the bcm43xx driver is deprecated, replaced by the b43 and b43legacy modules.

The module should be loaded automatically, in case it isn’t, you can load it manually:

# modprobe b43

or:

# modprobe b43legacy

You must bring the device up with ifconfig before doing any other configuration steps.

# ifconfig ethX up

Since the channel must be set manually, first do a scan:

# iwlist ethX scan

Then you can set it:

# iwconfig ethX channel Y

Finally set your essid:

# iwconfig ethX essid "myessid"

Ready!

17.9. cairo-clock

Cairo-Clock requires the Composite option to be enabled in your Xorg configuration. To enable it, add the following lines to /etc/X11/xorg.conf:

Section "Extensions"
  Option "Composite" "Enable"
EndSection

17.10. ccache

After you installed ccache, it won’t be enabled by default.

First, you need to determine who is allowed to use ccache. You have to add each user to the ccache group. If you want to allow using ccache from chrooted builds, then you need to add the fst user:

# usermod -a -G ccache fst

Second, you need to somehow let the build system to use ccache, and not the compiler directly. If you use makepkg, this is enabled by default (you can disable it with the -B option). If you build manually, then you are on your own, though usually there are two ways to do so:

  • Tell the configure script to use a different compiler:

$ CC=/usr/bin/ccache ./configure
  • Modify path to use the fake compiler provided by ccache:

export PATH=/usr/lib/ccache/bin:$PATH

17.11. cpupower

Configure your hardware specific options under /etc/sysconfig/cpupower. See the man pages for cpupower-frequency-set and cpupower-set for more information. When you are finished configuring, use this command as root to enable it at boot time:

systemctl enable cpupower.service

17.12. cryptsetup-luks

Follow these steps to when using cryptsetup-luks:

17.12.1. Creating

# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/partition
# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/partition label
# mke2fs -j /dev/mapper/label
# mount /dev/mapper/label /mnt/label

17.12.2. Mounting

Of course later you don’t have to use luksFormat and mke2fs:

# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/partition label
# mount /dev/mapper/label /mnt/label

17.12.3. Umounting

# umount /mnt/label
# cryptsetup luksClose label

17.12.4. Encrypting your home partition

Note
You have need to install the sharutils package to do the followings!
  • List these modules in /etc/sysconfig/modules:

aes
aes-i586
sha256
dm-crypt
  • Move all data from /home to a secure place (in this example /media/sda1/home)

# cp -arvx /home /media/sda1/
  • Umount /home (in this example /dev/hda6) and fill it with random numbers:

# umount /home
# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/hda6
  • Create the encrypted partition:

# cryptsetup -y luksFormat /dev/hda6

Here we will be asked for a password which will be necessary to access /home at boot time.

  • Open the encrypted partition and create its file system (ext3 in this example):

# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/hda6 home
# mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/home
  • Mount the home partition and copy the contents of original home:

# mount /dev/mapper/home /home
# cp -arvx /media/sda1/home /home
  • Edit the home related line in /etc/fstab:

/dev/mapper/home        /home   ext3    noatime 0       0
  • Create /etc/rc.d/rc.crypt script with the following content:

#!/bin/sh

/usr/sbin/cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/hda6 home
/bin/mount /dev/mapper/home /home
  • Enable it:

# ln -s /etc/rc.d/rc.crypt /etc/rc.d/rcS.d/S15rc.crypt

You have to delay the splash screen, so that you can type your password before the splash appears:

# mv /etc/rc.d/rcS.d/S03rc.splash /etc/rc.d/rcS.d/S15rc.splash

(It will ask the password between the lvm and the splash service.)

Now the system can be restarted and the password will be asked to access home partition boot-time.

Note
The English keyboard map will be used at that point of the boot process.

17.13. cwiid

17.13.1. Module loading

To use your wiimote you have to load module uninput with:

# modprobe uninput

To load this module at every start-up, just add uninput in /etc/sysconfig/modules file.

17.14. cyrus-sasl

17.14.1. Configuring

This mini-howto helps you to install the saslauthd server using postfix which will authenticate using users and passwords from /etc/{passwd,shadow}.

First install the necessary packages:

# pacman-g2 -S postfix saslauthd

Enable sasl in postfix’s config by appending the following lines to /etc/postfix/main.cf:

smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_sasl_local_domain = $myhostname
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous

You may want to append

broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes

as well.

Put the following lines to /usr/lib/sasl2/smtpd.conf:

pwcheck_method: saslauthd
mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN

Edit /etc/sysconfig/saslauthd by changing the following lines:

options=""

to

options="-a shadow"

Now you can start saslauthd by

service saslauthd start

as well as enabled in by default on startup:

service saslauthd add

Issue id postfix and see if the daemon group is listed. If not, then add postfix to the daemon group:

usermod -G daemon postfix

Finally restart postfix:

service postfix restart

Compeleted!

17.14.2. Verifying

We test it using telnet. We need perl to generate the string for the SASL authentication:

$ perl -MMIME::Base64 -e 'print encode_base64("vmiklos\0vmiklos\0secret");'
dm1pa2xvcwB2bWlrbG9zAHNlY3JldA==

Then use telnet:

$ telnet host.com 25
Trying ip...
Connected to host.com.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 host.com ESMTP Postfix
ehlo my.dhcp
250-host.com
250-PIPELINING
250-SIZE 10240000
250-VRFY
250-ETRN
250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES
250-8BITMIME
250 DSN
AUTH PLAIN dm1pa2xvcwB2bWlrbG9zAHNlY3JldA==
235 2.0.0 Authentication successful
quit
221 2.0.0 Bye
Connection closed by foreign host.

17.15. dante

17.15.1. Configuration

In most cases you have a socks server (you can create one easily using ssh, see the documentation of the openssh package), and you want to route all traffic through it. Here is the config you need:

route {
        from: 0.0.0.0/0 to: 0.0.0.0/0 via: 127.0.0.1 port = 8080
        proxyprotocol: socks_v4
}

17.15.2. Testing it

Try for example:

$ socksify irssi

When you connect to a server, others will see that you’re connecting from the server, not from your own host.

17.16. ddclient

Please configure /etc/ddclient/ddclient.conf before running ddclient!

Samples for common configurations can be found in: /usr/share/doc/ddclient-$package_version/sample*

Additional details and instructions can be found in: /usr/share/doc/ddclient-$package_version/README

Once you have finished configuring the ddclient.conf file, you can start ddclient as a daemon by running as root, the following command:

# service ddclient start

17.17. dhcp

If you are in trouble setting up your dhclient, use the following options. These are quite good defaults:

request subnet-mask, broadcast-address, time-offset, \
        routers, domain-name, domain-name-servers, \
        host-name, netbios-name-servers, netbios-scope;
timeout 20;
script "/sbin/dhclient-script";

17.18. drupal6

To be able to use this package as intended, you will have to:

  • set up apache to access /var/www/drupal6 from the web the way you like;

  • install and set up your favourite SQL database (mysql or postgresql; this package DOES NOT depend on any of them);

  • create and/or grant access to a mysql or postgresql database;

  • set up your drupal installation itself by entering the correct credentials at the install screen to be able to reach the above-mentioned database.

17.19. drupal7

To be able to use this package as intended, you will have to:

  • set up apache to access /var/www/drupal7 from the web the way you like;

  • install and set up your favourite SQL database (mysql, postgresql or sqlite; this package DOES NOT depend on any of them);

  • create and/or grant access to a mysql, postgresql or sqlite database;

  • set up your drupal installation itself by entering the correct credentials at the install screen to be able to reach the above-mentioned database.

17.20. dspam

To populate the DSPAM database, you need to follow several steps.

  1. First create a database. Login to the mysql command prompt.

    $ mysql -u root -p
    mysql> CREATE database dspam;
  2. Next, you need to create a dspam user. At the same MySQL prompt:

    mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON dspam.* TO dspam@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'passwd';

    Replacing passwd with your chosen password.

  3. Optimizing the datebase:

    If you want a space optimized db do:

    $ mysql -u dspam dspam -p < /var/lib/dspam/mysql/mysql_objects-space.sql

    If you want a speed optimized db do:

    $ mysql -u dspam dspam -p < /var/lib/dspam/mysql/mysql_objects-speed.sql

    Enter the password you set in the previous step, and the database should be populated.

  4. Remember to edit /etc/dspam/dspam.conf accordenly

If you want to use the postgresql, sqlite3 or Berekely DB4 backends you can find instructions in the dspam documentation.

17.21. eaccelerator

17.21.1. Setting up eaccelerator

In order to use eAccelerator, you must add the following lines to your /etc/php.ini file:

extension="/usr/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="16"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/tmp/eaccelerator"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="0"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="0"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"

Do not forget to create the cache directory as well:

mkdir /tmp/eaccelerator
chmod 0777 /tmp/eaccelerator

17.21.2. Configuration Options:

eaccelerator.shm_size
    The amount of shared memory (in megabytes) that eAccelerator will use.
    "0" means OS default. Default value is "0".

eaccelerator.cache_dir
    The directory that is used for disk cache. eAccelerator stores precompiled
    code, session data, content and user entries  here. The same data  can  be
    stored in shared memory also (for more quick access). Default value is
    "/tmp/eaccelerator".

eaccelerator.enable
    Enables or disables eAccelerator. Should be "1" for enabling  or  "0"  for
    disabling. Default value is "1".

eaccelerator.optimizer
    Enables or disables internal peephole optimizer which may  speed  up  code
    execution. Should be "1" for enabling or "0" for disabling. Default  value
    is "1".

eaccelerator.debug
    Enables or disables debug logging. Should be "1" for enabling or  "0"  for
    disabling. Default value is "0".

eaccelerator.check_mtime
    Enables or disables PHP file modification checking .  Should  be  "1"  for
    enabling or "0" for disabling. You should set it to "1"  if  you  want  to
    recompile PHP files after modification. Default value is "1".

eaccelerator.filter
    Determine which PHP files must be cached. You may specify  the  number  of
    patterns (for example "*.php *.phtml") which specifies to cache or not  to
    cache. If pattern starts with the character "!", it means to ignore  files
    which are matched by the following pattern. Default value is "" that means
    all PHP scripts will be cached.

eaccelerator.shm_max
    Disables putting large values into shared memory by " eaccelerator_put() "
    function. It indicates the largest allowed size in bytes (10240, 10K, 1M).
    The "0" disables the limit. Default value is "0".

eaccelerator.shm_ttl
    When eaccelerator fails to get shared memory for new script it removes all
    scripts which were not accessed  at  last "shm_ttl"  seconds  from  shared
    memory. Default value is "0" that means -  don't  remove  any  files  from
    shared memory.

eaccelerator.shm_prune_period
    When eaccelerator fails to get shared memory for new script  it  tryes  to
    remove  old  script   if   the   previous   try   was   made   more   then
    "shm_prune_period" seconds ago. Default value is "0" that  means  -  don't
    try to remove any files from shared memory.

eaccelerator.shm_only
    Enables or disables caching of compiled scripts on disk. It has  no  effect
    on session data and content caching. Default value is "0" that means -  use
    disk and shared memory for caching.

eaccelerator.compress
    Enables or disables cached content compression. Default value is  "1"  that
    means enable compression.

eaccelerator.compress_level
    Compression level used for content caching.  Default value is "9" which  is
    the maximum value

eaccelerator.keys
eaccelerator.sessions
eaccelerator.content
    Determine where keys, session data and content will be cached. The possible
    values are:
    "shm_and_disk" - cache data in shared memory and on disk (default value)
    "shm"          - cache data in shared memory or on disk if shared memory
                     is full or data size greater then "eaccelerator.shm_max"
    "shm_only"     - cache data in shared memory
    "disk_only"    - cache data on disk
    "none"         - don't cache data


eAccelerator API:

eaccelerator_put($key, $value, $ttl=0)
  puts the $value into shard memory for $ttl seconds.

eaccelerator_get($key)
  returns the value from shared memory which was stored by  eaccelerator_put()
  or null if it is not exists or was expired.

eaccelerator_rm($key)
  removres the $key from shared memory

eaccelerator_gc()
  removes all expired keys from shared memory

eaccelerator_lock($lock)
  creates a lock with specified name. The lock can  be  released  by  function
  eaccelerator_unlock() or automatic on the end of request.
  For Example:
  <?php
    eaccelerator_lock("count");
    eaccelerator_put("count",eaccelerator_get("count")+1));
  ?>

eaccelerator_unlock($lock)
  release lock with specified name

eaccelerator_set_session_handlers()
  install the eaccelerator session handlers.
  Since PHP 4.2.0 you can install eaccelerator session handlers
  in "php.ini" by "session.save_handler=eaccelerator".

eaccelerator_cache_output($key, $eval_code, $ttl=0)
  caches the output of $eval_code in shared memory for $ttl seconds.
  Output can be removed from cache by calling mmcach_rm() with the same $key.
  For Example:
  <?php eaccelerator_cache_output('test', 'echo time(); phpinfo();', 30); ?>

eaccelerator_cache_result($key, $eval_code, $ttl=0)
  caches the result of $eval_code in shared memory for $ttl seconds.
  Result can be removed from cache by calling mmcach_rm() with the same $key.
  For Example:
  <?php eaccelerator_cache_output('test', 'time()." Hello";', 30); ?>

eaccelerator_cache_page($key, $ttl=0)
  caches the full page for $ttl seconds.
  For Example:
  <?php
    eaccelerator_cache_page($_SERVER['PHP_SELF'].'?GET='.serialize($_GET),30);
    echo time();
    phpinfo();
  ?>

eaccelerator_rm_page($key)
  removes the page which was cached by eaccelerator_cache_page() with the same
  $key from cache

eaccelerator_encode($filename)
  returns the encoded bytecode of compiled file $filename

eaccelerator_load($code)
  loads script which was encoded by eaccelerator_encode()

17.22. ejabberd

17.22.1. Creating your SSL keys

Generate Key Pair:

# cd /etc/ejabberd
# openssl req -new -x509 -newkey rsa:1024 -days 3650 -keyout privkey.pem -out server.pem
Note
You should enter your domain name as the Common Name for your certificate.

Remove pass parse:

# openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out privkey.pem

Combine the Private and Public Key:

# cat privkey.pem >> server.pem

Delete Private Key:

# rm privkey.pem

Set permissions:

# chown root:ejabberd server.pem
# chmod 640 server.pem

Finally update the config file:

  • Change the ./ssl.pem string to /etc/ejabberd/server.pem.

  • Change starttls to tls in the listen section if you want to force users to use SSL.

17.22.2. Creating an administrator

Register an account on your ejabberd deployment. An account can be created using a jabber client like pidgin.

Add the following lines to you config:

{acl, admins, {user, "admin", "example.org"}}.
{access, configure, [{allow, admins}]}.

This will promote the account created in the previous step to an account with administrator rights.

17.22.3. Testing

Add the following line to your /etc/sysconfig/firewall, for example after mysql:

# ejabberd
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 5222 -j ACCEPT

Now you should be able to connect to ejabberd remotely. Start your favourite jabber client on a remote machine (ie. pidgin) and register another account. You should be able to talk to the admin now and vica versa.

For more info, please read the Installation and Operation Guide, which can be found at /usr/share/doc/ejabberd-*/guide.html.

17.23. enemy-territory

Evenbalance, developer of Punkbuster dropped support for Wolfenstein Enemy Territory (ET). Also the Punkbusterinstaller isn`t able to install the neccessary files for Enemy Territory. So if you got disconnected from servers and getting some #20004 errors, you can run et-pbupdate instead of pbweb. You can read more: http://etkey.org/

17.24. fbterm

To configure fbterm, please edit /etc/fbtermrc.

17.25. foo2zjs

This driver is under constant change, therefore no "stable" branch exists. Also, communications with the author led nowhere, that might explain some weirdness of building it, getting the latest stable version number etc. Mail

17.26. fuse

Fuse is a virtual filesystem "helper" which makes possible to mount unusual things as a filesystem. It is achieved by using a simple program, which runs in user space, to provide data that can be represented by the fuse kernel module as a filesystem. The interpreter program is a less complex one than a kernel-space module, which is much harder to write. In Frugalware, regular users of a given box can mount filesystems by fuse. First as root, let’s install the tools needed:

# pacman-g2 -S fuse

Now, having the base of fuse, we need to install the programs for each specific filesystem type. To get a hint on what is available, you can issue the following command:

$ pacman-g2 -Ss fuse

The two most used (ftp, ssh) plugins can be installed by running the following command. Beware, the ftp fs is a perl module, and it seems a bit memory hungry / buggy / slow so therefore it might be replaced by CurlFtpFS in the future.

# pacman-g2 -S fuseftp sshfs-fuse

Then, you can mount a remote dir with sftp access as a regular user doing:

$ /sbin/mount.fuse  sshfs#YOURUSERNAME@SERVER:/REMOTEDIR /LOCALDIR -o rw,OTHEROPTIONS

You can also unmount it as a regular user doing:

$ fusermount -u /LOCALDIR

17.27. fw32

17.27.1. Initial setup

Edit /etc/fw32/pacman-g2.conf if you want to change the mirror used, or other options used for pacman-g2.

Commands to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-create
systemctl enable fw32.service (required for boot-time fw32 root mounting)

17.27.2. Upgrading chroot

This needs to be done when packages become out of date. Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-upgrade
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.3. Installing packages or groups to chroot

Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-install <packages and/or groups>
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.4. Removing packages or groups from chroot

Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-remove <packages>
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.5. Installing local FPM package to chroot

Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-install-package <FPM packages>
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.6. Installing nobuild package to chroot

Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-merge <package>
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.7. Cleaning chroot cache

Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-clean
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.8. Deleting chroot

Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-delete
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.9. Removing fw32

Command to use (with sudo or root shell):

fw32-delete
systemctl disable fw32.service (only needed if you enabled this at setup time)
rm -f /var/cache/pacman-g2/pkg/*i686.fpm (only needed if you want to delete the fpm cache)
pacman-g2 -R fw32
Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.10. Running a command within the chroot

Commands run will have the permissions of the user.

To get a shell:

fw32-run

To run a specific command:

fw32-run <command> [<arguments>]

17.27.11. Commands

  • fw32-clean: Clean the cache of old packages.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.
  • fw32-create: Create the initial chroot.

  • fw32-delete: Delete the chroot, ensuring everything is umounted.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.
  • fw32-install: Install all packages and groups specified to the chroot.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.
  • fw32-install-package: Install all i686 FPMs specified to chroot.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.
  • fw32-merge: Install a nobuild package to chroot.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.
  • fw32-mount-all: Manually mount the chroot base directories.

  • fw32-run: Run a command within the chroot. If no command is specified, an attempt is made to execute the user’s shell.

  • fw32-umount-all: Manually umount all the directories in the chroot.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.
  • fw32-remove: Remove all packages or groups specified from the chroot.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.
  • fw32-upgrade: Performs a system upgrade inside the chroot.

Warning
Should not be used while someone is using the chroot.

17.27.12. building i686 packages

Use the command fw32-makepkg as root, in the same way you would use regular makepkg. It will transparently wrap your build into a i686 chroot to produce a i686 package.

17.27.13. nobuild packages

Some nobuild packages (like Skype) are available on x86_64, even if upstream provides an i686 binary only. In that case the package has to be installed inside the i686 chroot and on the host system as well: the host package will contain a desktop file and an icon only to invoke the chrooted package. See the fw32-merge command for details on how to install the i686 version.

17.28. gammu

17.28.1. Configuring

You need to create your ~/.gammurc:

[gammu]
port = /dev/ttyUSB0
connection = fbus

Replace /dev/ttyUSB0 with your serial port device and fbus with the appropriate protocol name if you are not a Nokia user. Check if you have write access to the device, you need to be a member of the uucp group.

Once you think you’re done, check your setup:

$ gnokii --identify

It should print your IMEI number so that you’ll be able to check if gammu really found your phone or there is a problem.

17.28.2. Creating a backup

You probably use gammu to make a backup of your phone.

This involves two steps:

  • Backing up your SMSes

    $ gammu --backupsms backupsms.txt
  • The rest of your phone.

    $ gammu --backup backup.txt

You may find an alternative format more human-readable for SMSes:

$ gammu --geteachsms > eachsms.txt

See the manual page for more tricks!

17.29. gif2png

If you want to use web2png, you must install python.

pacman-g2 -S python == git

17.29.1. gitweb

If you want to set up a web interface for your git repositories, then:

  • install the gitweb package

  • edit /etc/gitweb.conf so that $projectroot will point to the repository directory

  • restart apache so that the gitweb configuration will be included.

17.30. gnome-bluetooth

For have a full bluetooth support with gnome install obex-data-server # pacman-g2 -S obex-data-server

17.31. grub2

It is no longer acceptable to edit your grub configuration manually since upgrading to grub2. Instead, it is advised to insert any customizations you require in /etc/sysconfig/grub-config and /etc/sysconfig/grub-custom.

17.32. help2man

The most common usage of this applications is something like this:

$ help2man -n "<oneliner description>" -S Frugalware -N ./<binary> |sed 's/\\(co/(c)/' ><binary>.1

17.33. horde-webmail

This app does not have any webserver, SQL server nor IMAP server in its depends, which is intentional. Anyway, if you plan to use it, you should set up a webserver and an IMAP server. The SQL server is optional, but it’s the most easiest-to-use preferences container.

Additionally this app is not configured in any way: there are far too many customizable settings, so the packager cannot know how to set them for your particular needs. Installation instructions can be found in the INSTALL file.

17.34. hostapd

Configuration examples can be found in /etc/hostapd. You must edit the following files located in /etc/hostapd to configure hostapd:

hostapd.allow hostapd.conf hostapd.deny

17.35. icewm

I have included a custom shell script called icewm-menus, for use with the icewm menu file. An example menus file is also include at /usr/share/icewm/menus. It uses standard shell syntax, so you can easily use shell variables, etc, to create dynamic menus in icewm through my script and the usage of your local $HOME/.icewm/menus file. To use it, use the following syntax in your menu file: menuprog "(folder name)" (icon name) icewm-menus (menu switch to use) If setup correctly, you’ll wind up with menus generated by the output of the shell script. Have fun configuring icewm.

17.36. k3b

If you want to rip a video DVD, install the transcode package as well.

17.37. kbstick

If you do not know the keycodes for the keys you wish to remap the joystick events to, then please install the xev program. It will help you to identify them. Moving on, the /etc/kbstick.conf is the system level configuration file the shell script reads from if the user does not have a .kbstickrc in their home directory. Syntax is the same in both cases, and the configuration file has some comments to give you an idea of what each variable does. I have set the default up/down/left/right key mappings to what my laptop uses for them and the buttons will have to be manually defined to their proper keycodes. If you need any further help, please email the maintainer of this package.

17.38. kexec-tools

Warning
kexec works just like reboot, so please save your data before using it!

Loading the new kernel:

# kexec -l /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-fw1 --append="ro root=/dev/hda3 quiet resume=/dev/hda2"

Booting it:

# kexec -e

17.39. keychain

First of all, we have to install package called keychain. (pacman-g2 -S keychain)

In the next step we have to create a new key. A key stands from two parts, a public and a private part. It means two different files in your ~/.ssh/ directory.

Your key is generated by a program called ssh-keygen. It’s a part of openssh package. Run ssh-keygen -t dsa! You’ll see something like this:

voroskoi@kavics~$ ssh-keygen -t dsa
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/voroskoi/.ssh/id_dsa):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/voroskoi/.ssh/id_dsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/voroskoi/.ssh/id_dsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
ac:47:93:29:d2:c4:e1:85:47:5c:c1:36:93:74:e9:08 voroskoi@kavics

It’ll generate for us the two parts of the key. The program asks where do you want to save the keys, it’s good to simply push an enter. After that You have to type in the passphrase of the key two times. It’s really important to chose a hard passphrase. It should contain lower-/uppercase characters, digits, possibly special characters too. The length must be at least 10 characters! We have to type in this passphrase only once after every restart we shouldn’t choose an easy one.

If everything works fine, then we have an id_dsa and an id_dsa.pub file in our ~/.ssh/ directory.

voroskoi@kavics~/.ssh $ ls -la
drwx------   2 voroskoi users   5 2005-04-13 13:39 ./
drwx--x--x  38 voroskoi users  67 2005-04-13 13:24 ../
-rw-------   1 voroskoi users 736 2005-03-01 21:25 id_dsa
-rw-r--r--   1 voroskoi users 605 2005-04-11 04:18 id_dsa.pub
-rw-r--r--   1 voroskoi users 230 2005-04-11 04:26 known_hosts

Now, we would like to use our newly generated key. We have to do the following:

$ scp ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub username@remote_machine:
$ ssh username@remote_machine
$ cat id_dsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ rm id_dsa.pub
$ exit

Good to know, that this time(I mean when we run scp and ssh commands) we can’t use our key’s passphrase, so we have to use our password on the remore_machine. If it’s done without any mistake on next login the remote_machine will ask for our key’s passphrase.

And here comes keychain. In openssh package there is a program called ssh-agent. You can store keys in ssh-agent. Keychain just makes easier using of ssh-agent and adds some new features.

This time i assume that we use bash. If we would like to use keychain with an other shell, then we can use man keychain:-) So, let’s take out favourite editor and add the following lines to ~/.bash_profile file:

keychain -q id_dsa
[ -f $HOME/.keychain/$HOSTNAME-sh ] && source $HOME/.keychain/$HOSTNAME-sh

17.40. ksplice

ksplice is handy in case there is a serious security fix and you don’t want or can’t afford rebooting your system immediately.

Let’s pick an example, the kernel-2.6.28-6anacreon3 update, which added CVE-2009-2692.patch.

First update FST so that you will have the patch:

# repoman upd

Now create a working dir:

$ cp -a /usr/src/linux/ ~/linux-source
$ cd ~/linux-source
$ mkdir ksplice
$ cp /boot/config ksplice/.config
$ cp /boot/System.map ksplice/
$ ln -s ~/linux-source ksplice/build
$ cp /var/fst/stable/source/base/kernel/CVE-2009-2692.patch .

Now create the ksplice update:

$ ksplice-create --patch=CVE-2009-2692.patch ~/linux-source

Then apply it:

# ksplice-apply ksplice-st4dt4bg.tar.gz

To view all applies updates, or a specific one:

# ksplice-view
# ksplice-view --id=st4dt4bg

To revert one:

# ksplice-undo st4dt4bg

17.41. kvpnc

Howto setup KVpnc for use without root password - sudo

  1. Install sudo

  2. Edit /etc/sudoers: add an command alias

    # Cmnd alias specification
    Cmnd_Alias KVPNC = /usr/bin/kvpnc
    
    # User privilege specification
    ALL ALL=NOPASSWD:KVPNC
Warning
Do it gently! (As always, when you edit /etc/sudoers.)

17.42. lastfmsubmitd

17.42.1. Configuring Lastfmsubmitd

Change your LastFM username and password in /etc/lastfmsubmitd.conf and the MPD server settings in /etc/lastmp.conf before starting the LastFM submit daemon.

17.42.2. Starting the daemon(s)

After configuring lastfmsubmitd, you should run the following commands to start the daemons:

# systemctl start lastfmsubmitd.service
# systemctl start lastmp.service

17.43. lesspipe

For syntax highlighting support in less via the lesspipe wrapper, you must install the source-highlight package.

17.44. lilo

So, you feel like using lilo, do you? Well, here you will find instructions for configuring lilo to work with Frugalware. Some things to keep in mind:

  1. lilo must be rerun every time you upgrade the kernel

  2. lilo must also be rerun if you change configuration for it to take effect

  3. only lilo or grub can be installed to your boot sector at the same time, however they do not conflict while simply residing on your system

You will find an example lilo.conf in /etc/lilo.conf already. You will need to tweak it in order for it to match your system’s booting setup. The default structure is designed to reflect the most common setup I know of, but may still require a lot of modifications. For more information on lilo, please refer to man lilo and man lilo.conf.

17.45. lineakd

After installing lineakd, make sure you create a configuration file before starting it.

Example configuration files are located in /usr/share/doc/lineakd-*/.

Don’t forget to copy the configuration file to /etc/lineakd after you create it.

You can then start the lineak daemon by running the following command:

$ lineakd

17.46. lirc

After installing lirc you need to take the following steps:

  1. Find a lird.conf for your remote control on remotes You can also take a look on /usr/share/remotes directory if you do not have an internet connection. If you do not find your remote controller, try irrecord myremote command.

  2. Copy your lircd.conf to /etc/ directory as root.

  3. Add evdev to /etc/sysconfig/modules.

  4. Load the module with modprobe evdev.

  5. Edit /etc/sysconfig/lirc if necessary.

    $ cat /proc/bus/input/devices | grep -e N -e H

    will show you the event# you should use. (Default is 2.)

  6. Start lircd and lircmd with sudo service lirc start.

17.47. lmsensors

lmsensors is a hardware monitoring tool which is able to read thermal and voltage values and fan speeds from the sensor chips of your motherboard. Before running sensors you have to run sensors-detect as root to initialize them. It will autodetect your hardware and define which kernel modules you need to get it working properly, and tell you how to autoload them during boot.

So if you want to use lmsensors try to run

sensors-detect

and say YES at end of sensors-detect to write /etc/sysconfig/lm_sensors.

17.48. lvm2

17.48.1. Creating

Here is a mini-HOWTO, a longer one is available here.

First if you are on a setup cd, you need to

modprobe dm-mod

and

vgchange -a y

The first loads the device-mapper support for the kernel, the later enables the existing volume groups. This is automatically done for you on an installed Frugalware system.

You need to decide what physical partitions to use for LVM. In this mini-HOWTO / is /dev/hda1 and we create a big /home partition using /dev/hda2 and /dev/hdc1.

Let’s initialize them for use by LVM:

pvcreate /dev/hda2 /dev/hdc1

Create a volume group titled vg:

vgcreate vg /dev/hda2

Extend it with /dev/hdb1:

vgextend vg /dev/hdc1

Then we can create a logical volume with a size of 400G titled home:

lvcreate -L400G -nhome vg

Create a filesystem on it as usual, ie. for ext3:

mke2fs -j /dev/vg/home

And now the only task is to mount it as usual, ie:

mount /dev/vg/home /mnt/target/home

17.48.2. Extending

You already saw how to extend a volume group. Extending a logical volume is a bit more complex, but still easy.

If you use ext3:

umount /mnt/target/home
lvextend -L+900M /dev/vg/home
resize2fs /dev/vg/home
mount /dev/vg/home /mnt/target/home
Note
According to the manpage of resize2fs, it would have support resizing without umounting, but this does not seem to work.

If you use reiserfs:

lvextend -L+900M /dev/vg/home
resize_reiserfs /dev/vg/home

17.48.3. Removing

To remove a logical volume:

lvremove /dev/vg/home

To remove a physical volume from a volume group:

vgreduce vg /dev/hdc1

To remove a volume group:

vgremove vg

That’s it.

17.49. mailman

There is no any kind of http server in mailman’s depends. It’s because they are not needed to get a working mailman. Of cource if you want to provide archives and so don’t forget to install a http server.

17.50. man-db

If you like coloured man-pages then you can enable that feature by issuing

# chmod +x /etc/profile.d/man-colors.sh

It is handled as a configuration file, so feel free to edit the colors in that file if you want.

17.51. mantis

You have to GRANT some privileges (at least for the operating user) to be able to use this package, as the installer does not GRANT them. The operating user requires ALTER, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and even DELETE privileges, regardless that the latter is not mentioned by upstream. For installation, INDEX, CREATE, DELETE, and DROP privileges are also required - this can be carried out if you provide the (MySQL) superuser’s credentials to the installer.

Do not forget to rm -rf /var/www/mantis/admin after a successful install to prevent hijacking your bugtracker, and change the default administrator’s password.

17.52. mediawiki

After installing this package, please run /usr/bin/mediawikisetup as root to setup MediaWiki

17.53. mod_mono

For enable mod_mono module apache don’t forget to define the User/Group directives into /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. For test the configuration of mod_mono into /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf : #mono settings Alias /demo /usr/lib/xsp/test MonoApplications "/demo:/usr/lib/xsp/test" MonoServerPath /usr/lib/mono/2.0/mod-mono-server2.exe <Directory /usr/lib/xsp/test> SetHandler mono </Directory> and check the result : http://localhost/demo/

17.54. monit

You may want to forge a config file for yourself as /etc/monit/monitrc to be able to properly use Monit. Consult the online docs for details:

After doing so you should issue a systemctl enable monit.service command to make use of this service.

17.55. motion

You should edit the settings: videodevice, input, norm, frequency, width, height and target_dir in /etc/motion.conf

17.56. munin

From munin-1.2.5-2 we no longer use a random uid/gid, but dedicated ones. Because of this munin service will not start if you have it installed before, so you have to correct this by issuing these commands:

groupmod -g 47 munin
usermod -u 47 -g 47 munin
chown -R munin:munin /var/lib/munin
chown -R munin:munin /var/www/html/munin
chown -R munin:munin /var/log/munin
chown -R munin:munin /var/run/munin

You should chown any other munin-owned stuff you may have lying around, these are only the default ones.

17.57. nss-mdns

To enable IPv4 multicast DNS lookups, append mdns4 to the hosts line in /etc/nsswitch.conf. Use mdns6 for IPv6 or mdns for both.

17.58. openssh

17.58.1. Forwarding ports

# ssh -L 8000:localhost:80 server.com

After this you can access server.com:80 at localhost:8000 even if server.com:80 is not accessible from your machine.

17.58.2. Socks proxy

Many mobile users have the following problem: they have to use an unencrypted wireless lan and they want to access webservers which does not support https. There is an easy solution for this: you transfer data to a server in an ssh tunnel then the data can be transferred to the server unencrypted in a wired network. This is much more secure. Set up the socks proxy on localhost:8080:

$ ssh -D 8080 server.com

Then configure your webbrowser to use the proxy, for example in firefox, select Manual proxy configuration and then set SOCKS Host to localhost, Port to 8080.

Note
Don’t forget to clear other proxy fields! (HTTP, SSL, FTP, etc.)

17.59. pawm

Copy /etc/pawm.conf to $HOME/.pawm for your own local changes. If you want icons on your desktop, add a file to your $HOME/.pawm directory that starts with "app" and append an alphanumerical phrase of your choice to it. Then, write the file structure as follows:

<icon name> <x position> <y position> <name to display> <command>

Example:

firefox.xpm 40 40 firefox firefox

Other things to remember, you can only use xpm files for this method, and it takes the files from /usr/share/pixmaps. If I knew how to change this path to a directory the user has, I would.

17.60. pdns

If you wish to use the gmysql or gpgsql backends with a local server, then follow these instructions.

For gmysql, install mysql package.

pacman-g2 -Sy mysql

For gpgsql, install postgresql package.

pacman-g2 -Sy postgresql

Now, copy /lib/systemd/system/pdns.service to /etc/systemd/system/pdns.service.

cp -f /lib/systemd/system/pdns.service /etc/systemd/system/pdns.service

Uncomment the lines appropriate for your selected backend. The comments in the file will guide you. After all this, you must still ensure the specific database backend you are wanting to use is properly configured. This means both the pdns configuration and the setup for the mysql or postgresql daemon. Refer to pdns, mysql, and/or postgresql documentation for more information.

17.61. pekwm

Be sure to make your own file at $HOME/.pekwm/autostart if you use pekwm-session to auto-launch commands when you startup. I know pekwm has a start file for this, but my method launches it only at the start of your session, while the method pekwm uses starts everytime you restart/start pekwm. Use it well. You can find an example below:

dbus-session --exit-with-session --sh-syntax & feh --bg-scale "$HOME/.foo/bar" &

17.62. perlpanel

I have purposely left out a few perl modules from the dependencies array, because they are not needed to run perlpanel and drag in a lot of GNOME or other stuff you may not want. Below, you will find a list of these modules and what they do. If you find errors in this documentation, then please report it and I will look into it.

perl-xmms - perlpanel plugin interface to xmms perl-gnome2-vfs - various gnome plugin interfaces for perlpanel libgnomeui - for full libglade support in perlpanel

17.63. phc-optimizer

This package contains a script for finding the optimal voltage while maintaining system stability. During the process, your system will mostly likely crash multiple times before you find the right settings. Make sure you are not running or doing anything important while using this script. Keep a backup of essential data in case of data loss.

Now, you will need to run this script as root or have sudo privileges. In addition, you need to have installed either phc-intel or phc-k8 and have compatible hardware. Run this command as root or regular user with sudo privileges, and follow the interactive prompts it gives you.

phc-optimizer

It will save the results from testing in a file called phc_tweaked_vids in the directory it was executed from. This process should be repeated for each VID value. After all this work, you should have your final set of VIDs.

17.64. php

You should set

cgi.fix_pathinfo=1

in /etc/php.ini in order to use php-cgi.

17.65. php-jsmin

17.65.1. Setting up JSMin

In order to use JSMin, you must add the following lines to your /etc/php.ini file:

extension="/usr/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626/jsmin.so"

17.66. phpbb

After installing this package, please run /usr/bin/phpbbsetup as root to setup phpBB

After upgrading, make sure to run the database update script

17.67. pm-radeon

Before you can use this package, you must edit the configuration for it in the file /etc/sysconfig/pm-radeon. After you are done, run this command to enable it at startup.

systemctl enable pm-radeon.service

17.68. pootle

In most cases you want to use pootle with mysql and apache. See here on how to configure them:

Also read these pages if you’re upgrading from Pootle 1.x:

17.69. postfix

17.69.1. Using a relay host

These are the basic steps to set up Postfix to use SMTP Authentication to send mail through a relay host.

Set up a password maps file (/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd) as follows:

mail.ispserver.com    username:password
# chown root:root /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
# chmod 600 /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
# postmap /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd

Append the following lines to /etc/postfix/main.cf:

relayhost = mail.ispserver.com
smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
smtp_sasl_security_options =

Finally reload postfix:

# postfix reload

That should do it!

17.70. postfixadmin

This package relies on correct install of postfix’s virtual tables and it needs to be configured before usage. Be sure to read upstream’s /var/www/postfixadmin/INSTALL.TXT in order to accomplish the setup or upgrade. You should also take care of configuring apache to be able to use the web-based interface.

Should you want to make use of the autoreply (vacation) feature, install these packages as well: perl-mail-sender, perl-email-valid, perl-mime-charset, perl-log-dispatch, perl-mime-encwords, perl-params-validate and read upstream’s /var/www/postfixadmin/VIRTUAL_VACATION/INSTALL.TXT in order to setup autoreply (vacation) properly. Don’t forget to enable it in config.inc.php as well!

17.71. postgrey

To use postgrey, put something along the lines of

    smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
        ...
        reject_unauth_destination
        check_policy_service inet:127.0.0.1:60000

in your /etc/postfix/main.cf (postfix 2.1 or newer is required.)

17.72. pptpd

  1. Preface

    I was asked to set up VPN using PPTP. A much secure way to setup it up is using IPSec, more details here. Also you could use ssh+pppd, but that’s rather problematic on platforms other than Unix.

  2. Setting up the server

    The big problem here is that most outdated HOWTO starts with patching your kernel and ppp. This is no longer needed!

    Requiements: You need kernel>=2.6.15 or newer (Frugalware 0.4 or higher is OK). Also you need ppp>=2.4.2.

    Also probably these are already installed on your system, let’s see the new package: pptpd. Install it with the usual

    # pacman-g2 -S pptpd

    Probably this is done if you’re reading this HOWTO :-)

    Here comes my /etc/pptp.conf:

    $ grep -v '^\(#\|$\)' /etc/pptpd.conf
    option /etc/ppp/options.pptpd
    logwtmp
    localip 10.0.0.88
    remoteip 10.0.0.89-127

    10.0.0.88 is the internal address of the server, 10.0.0.89-127 is the range that can be used by the pptp clients.

    Then let’s see that referred /etc/ppp/options.pptpd:

    $ grep -v '^\(#\|$\)' /etc/ppp/options.pptpd
    name pptpd
    refuse-pap
    refuse-chap
    refuse-mschap
    require-mschap-v2
    require-mppe-128
    proxyarp
    debug
    lock
    nobsdcomp
    novj
    novjccomp
    nologfd

    After everything works fine, you can remove the "debug" line from the config.

    Then add at least one user:

    # cat /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
    ## client        server  secret                  IP addresses
    mylogin           *      stupidpassword          *

    The rest is about to allow pptp on the firewall (I’m assuming that you use the default Frugalware configuration: INPUT is on DROP by default, but FORWARD is allowed, OUTPUT too.)

    Add the following 2 lines to the filter section of /etc/sysconfig/firewall:

    -A INPUT -p gre -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 1723 -j ACCEPT

    If you want to allow a client to access Internet via this pptp server, add the following line to the nat section of the same file (change ethX to the correct network interface):

    -A POSTROUTING -o ethX -j MASQUERADE

    Then check if you have PPP support in the kernel enabled:

    # lsmod | grep ppp_generic

    If there is no output, enable it:

    # modprobe ppp_generic
    # echo "ppp_generic" >> /etc/sysconfig/modules

    Now we’re ready to start:

    # pptpd -f -o /etc/ppp/options.pptpd

    If no error messages are reported, omit the -f option so it will go background.

    Later you can put this to your /etc/rc.d/rc.local. Debug messages will appear in /var/log/messages if you’re interested in them.

  3. Client side

    Install the necessary "pptp" package:

    # pacman-g2 -S pptp

    Most howto suggets the pptpconfig (http://pptpclient.sourceforge.net/) tool, it’s written in PHP and uses GTK+2. You don’t want to use graphical tools locally (and install XOrg) for administrating your machine, do you?

    We can do it by hand, not too complicated.

    You can name every tunnel you create, I’ll use here the "mytunnel" name.

    Fire up your favorite editor and create the /etc/ppp/peers/mytunnel file with the following contents:

    $ grep -v '^\(#\|$\)' /etc/ppp/peers/mytunnel
    name mylogin
    remotename PPTP
    file /etc/ppp/options.pptp
    pty "pptp IP_OF_THE_SERVER --nolaunchpppd "
    require-mppe

    Your /etc/ppp/chap-secrets should contain the following line:

    mylogin  PPTP    secret  *

    We’re ready to start the client:

    # pppd pty 'pptp server --nolaunchpppd' call mytunnel debug dump logfd 2 nodetach

    A lot of debug messages will be printed, check on an other console if you got a new pppx interface or not:

    # ifconfig ppp0
    ppp0    Link encap:Point-to-Point Protocol
            inet addr:10.0.0.89  P-t-P:10.0.0.88  Mask:255.255.255.255
            UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST  MTU:996  Metric:1
            RX packets:7 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
            TX packets:7 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
            collisions:0 txqueuelen:3
            RX bytes:70 (70.0 b)  TX bytes:76 (76.0 b)

    If it seems to be ok, you no longer need the debug messages and pppd can go backround:

    # pppd pty 'pptp server --nolaunchpppd' call mytunnel

    That was all. Not so simple but anyone can do it :-)

  4. Resources

17.73. prosody

Don’t forget to change /etc/prosody.cfg.lua when needed For more informations about prosody’s configurtion, please take a look at : http://prosody.im/doc

If you want to add or delete JIDs you have to be in the prosody group You can do it with this command : usermod -aG prosody LOGIN_NAME

To start the daemon, type service prosody start To automaticly start the daemon at boot time, type service prosody add Please do NOT use prosodyctl start and stop

17.74. psx

Note: You must find a PSX bios on your own, and place it in ~/.pSX/bios.

17.75. pulseaudio

Because PulseAudio can be used as drop-in replacement for ESD you can fool GNOME into loading the PulseAudio daemon just like the traditional ESD daemon. To achieve this use the esdcompat script shipped with PulseAudio. Install pulseaudio-esd : pacman-g2 -S pulseaudio-esd Create a symlink from /usr/bin/esd to /usr/bin/esdcompat For more information on pulseaudio, please refer to http://www.pulseaudio.org/wiki/PerfectSetup

17.76. pyro

You’ll find pyro’s scripts in /usr/lib/python2.5/site-packages/Pyro/bin

17.77. qemu

17.77.1. QuickStart

If you are completely new to qemu, you may find the big list of switches a bit confusing. Most users want to install an operating system from a cdrom image to a virtual harddisk. Here is what you need:

$ qemu-img create foo.img 8G
$ wget http://server.com/bar.iso
$ qemu -hda foo.img -cdrom bar.iso

17.77.2. Guest-agent

The guest agent service is started automatically, as long as the qemu-guest subpackage is installed. See here for setup instructions.

17.77.3. Tricks

It worth to read the full documentation at /usr/share/doc/qemu-*/qemu-doc.html, it really worth to do so.

To demonstrate how powerful qemu is, here are a few cheap tricks:

If you want to be able to ssh to the machine, you can use port redirection. For example using the -redir tcp:1022::22 option, qemu:22 will be available at localhost:1022.

Note
This requires root privileges.

You can create a unix socket to control your virtual machine. For example if you are not able to ssh to the machine, you can still properly shut it down:

Use the -monitor unix:/tmp/qemu,server,nowait option, then send the sendkey ctrl-alt-delete string to the socket, for example using python:

python -c "import socket; sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_UNIX, socket.SOCK_STREAM); \
sock.connect('/tmp/qemu'); \
sock.send('sendkey ctrl-alt-delete\n')"

Finally a trick about vnc: using for example the -vnc 0 option, it’s possible to reach qemu’s display via vnc. This is quite handy if you run qemu on a server (for example in screen), then you can freely attach to and detach from it whenever you want to do so.

Really, read the full documentation! :)

17.78. quota-tools

To really activate quotas, you’ll need to add usrquota to the appropriate partitions as listed in /etc/fstab. Here’s an example:

/dev/hda2   /home   ext2   defaults,usrquota    1   1

When you want quota support for a given partition, some special files have to be created boot-time. This is not done by default. To do so, you need to

# touch /var/lib/quota/new

then, reboot to create those files.

To edit user quotas, use edquota. See man edquota.

17.79. redmine

Post Installation :

Create an empty database and accompanying user named redmine for example.

For Mysql: create database redmine character set utf8; create user redmine@localhost identified by my_password; grant all privileges on redmine.* to redmine@localhost;

For PostegreSQL: create database redmine character set utf8; create user redmine@localhost identified by my_password; grant all privileges on redmine.* to redmine@localhost;

Edit config/database.yml

Generate a session store secret: cd /var/www/html/redmine/ rake config/initializers/session_store.rb

Create the database structure, by running the following command under the application root directory: RAILS_ENV=production rake db:migrate It will create tables and an administrator account.

Insert default configuration data in database, by running the following command: RAILS_ENV=production rake redmine:load_default_data

Fix permissions mkdir tmp public/plugin_assets chown -R redmine:redmine files log tmp public/plugin_assets chmod -R 755 files log tmp public/plugin_assets

Test the installation by running WEBrick web server: ruby script/server webrick -e production see the result : http://localhost:3000/

  • login: admin

  • password: admin

SMTP Configuration : Copy config/email.yml.example to config/email.yml and edit this file to adjust your SMTP settings.

17.80. rss2email

17.80.1. Configure:

Create a new feed database:

$ r2e new you@yourdomain.com

Subscribe to some feeds:

$ r2e add http://www.aaronsw.com/2002/rss2email/updates.rss

(That’s the feed to be notified when there’s a new version of rss2email.) Repeat this for each feed you want to subscribe to.

When you run rss2email, it emails you about every story it hasn’t seen before. But the first time you run it, that will be every story. To avoid this, you can ask rss2email not to send you any stories the first time you run it:

$ r2e run --no-send

Then later, you can ask it to email you new stories:

$ r2e run

You probably want to set this up as a cron job or something.

17.80.2. Customize:

There are a few options, described at the top of rss2email.py. If you want to change something, add it to config.py. For example, to be notified every time a post changes, instead of just once per post:

$ echo "TRUST_GUID = 0" >>~/.rss2email/config.py

And you can ask rss2email to make the emails look as if they were sent when the item was actually posted:

$ echo "DATE_HEADER = 1" >>~/.rss2email/config.py

17.81. sawfish

I have included a simple script called sawfish-session which sources $HOME/.sawfish/startup, if it exists. It is setup so you can easily run your own commands before sawfish is launched. You can find an example file at /usr/share/sawfish/startup. Also, there is a sawfish-aplay script as well, which is a wrapper to aplay with the -q argument so your logs aren’t spammed by a bunch of useless messages if you choose to use sound events. To use sound events in sawfish, run sawfish-ui and goto the Sound tab, and enable sounds. Then, close the program, run it again, and there should a greyed out box at the bottom for entering a command to for playing sounds. I have disabled ESD support in favor of this. Check the box to enable it, and enter either sawfish-aplay or another program of your choice. However, keep in mind this box cannot accept arguments, it can only accept the path to an executable of some sort, which is the whole reason I included an aplay wrapper. Also, be sure to visit http://sawfish.wikia.com if you want to find stuff to supplement sawfish, like scripts, themes, etc. And, finally, you will an example piece of lisp code you can put in your $HOME/.sawfishrc and edit to your heart’s content to get the right root menu for you. This is also where you put lisp code that you want to become active every time you restart sawfish. Use sawfish-client if you want to test it, and remember to put it in your rc file if you wish to retain it. Happy hacking!

(setq root-menu '( ("Editors" ("Abiword" (system "abiword &")) ("Leafpad" (system "leafpad &")) ) ("Terminals" ("Sakura" (system "sakura &")) ("xterm" (system "xterm &")) ) ("Multimedia" ("Audacious" (system "audacious &")) ("VLC" (system "vlc &")) ) ("Network" ("Firefox" (system "firefox &")) ("Pidgin" (system "pidgin &")) ) ("Restart" restart) ("Quit" quit) ))

17.82. screen

17.82.1. Keeping your screen running across reboots

You may want to restart your screen session automatically after a reboot. This is the case, for example, when we seed the Frugalware ISOs using a torrent client. Here is what you need:

  • Set up your ~/.screenrc so that it’ll start your application when screen starts up:

screen -t seed 0 /bin/sh -c 'cd $HOME/frugalware-torrents; rtorrent'
  • Run crontab -e and append the following line to your crontab:

@reboot screen -d -m

You’re ready!

17.83. smartcam

Once the installation is complete, make sure you load the kernel modules:

# modprobe videodev # modprobe smartcam

17.84. squirrelmail

Please start the configure script in the /var/www/squirrelmail directory!

17.85. squirrelmail-check_quota

You have to install this plugin with squirrelmail’s own ./configure tool.

17.86. squirrelmail-login_notes

You have to install this plugin with squirrelmail’s own ./configure tool.

17.87. stunnel

You need some additional configuration before stunnel will be functional:

Adjust the configuration file:

# cp /etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf-sample /etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf
# vi /etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf
Note
If something goes wrong, try setting sslVersion to all.

Generate your certificate:

# openssl req -new -x509 -days 365 -nodes -config /etc/stunnel/stunnel.cnf -out \
/etc/stunnel/mail.pem -keyout /etc/stunnel/mail.pem

Hide the certificate from users:

# chmod 600 /etc/stunnel/mail.pem

Now you can enable and start the service:

# systemctl enable stunnel.service
# systemctl start stunnel.service

17.88. sugarcrm

In order to use the sugarcrm, you have to symlink it to somewhere. For example, if you want to use it under http://localhost/sugarcrm, then use:

# ln -s /var/www/SugarSuite /var/www/html/sugarcrm

After installing this package, please run in a browser http://localhost/sugarcrm/install.php to setup SugarSuite (sugarcrm).

17.89. syslinux

All the configurable defaults in SYSLINUX can be changed by putting a file called syslinux.cfg.

SYSLINUX searches for the SYSLINUX.CFG file in the following order:

/boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg /syslinux/syslinux.cfg /syslinux.cfg

Here is a simple example syslinux.cfg file, with one entry to boot a Linux kernel:

DEFAULT linux LABEL linux SAY Now booting the kernel from SYSLINUX… KERNEL vmlinuz.img APPEND ro root=/dev/sda1

see http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/SYSLINUX for the complete documentation.

17.90. trac

After installing trac you need a few steps to set it up. First of all do not forget to install postgresql/mysql/sqlite according to which database backend you want to use.

To create a new trac project, just use the command:

$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv

You can check the result with:

tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject

Then, fire up a browser and visit http://localhost:8000

For further documentation on trac, how to set up with different HTTP daemons see TracGuide

17.91. tremfusion

Follow this as user:

1) Copy the Tremulous pk3s (data-1.1.0.pk3, vms-1.1.0.pk3, map-atcs-1.1.0.pk3, etc) from their installation directory to /home/<user>/.tremulous/base/"

(Use slocate data-1.1.0.pk3 to find it)

$ cp /usr/share/tremulous/base/*.pk3 ~/.tremulous/base/

2) Copy z-tremfusion-menu-0.99r3.pk3 to /home/<user>/.tremulous/tremfusion/

(Create the directory if it doesn’t exist)

$ mkdir ~/.tremulous/tremfusion
$ cp /usr/share/tremulous/tremfusion/*tremfusion*.pk3 ~/.tremulous/tremfusion/

3) Copy gamex86.so to /home/<user>/.tremulous/base/

$ cp /usr/share/tremulous/base/gamex86.so ~/.tremulous/base/gamex86.so

17.92. uget

If you want to use aria2-plugin, first install aria2 package: pacman-g2 -S aria2 == util-linux

17.92.1. Using tmpfs for /tmp

Frugalware does not use tmpfs for /tmp by default. However on servers this can cause problems: if you do not reboot for months, then cleaning /tmp can take some time. Using tmpfs can solve your problem: it’s a ramdisk so its content not preserved during a reboot. All you need is to add the following line to your /etc/fstab:

tmpfs            /tmp             tmpfs       defaults         0   0
Note
You need util-linux >= 2.12-31 for this, otherwise X may not start.

17.93. vavoom

17.93.1. Before you play

To be able to play, you must have the IWAD files of the original games and copy it in ~/.vavoom or in /usr/share/vavoom. You can find this IWAD file on the original game CD or in the net. You can use shareware game’s IWAD, too.

17.94. vim

If you want to enable spell check support, you need to:

  • install the spell files for your language:

# pacman-g2 -S vim-spell-xx

where xx is code of the requested language.

  • enable the spell check support for your language (type in vim):

:setlocal spell spelllang=xx_yy

Some languages need correctly set encoding. If you get a message like:

Warning: Cannot find word list "hu.latin1.spl" or "hu.ascii.spl"

then you need to set your encoding as well:

:set encoding=latin2

The incorrect words are coloured red by default. You can reach a list of suggested words by pressing z= when the cursor is at the given word.

If you want to disable the spell check support, type:

:setlocal nospell

It may be handy to have map function keys in ~/.vimrc to enable / disable the spell check support:

set encoding=latin2
map <F5> <Esc>:setlocal spell spelllang=en_gb<CR>
map <F6> <Esc>:setlocal spell spelllang=hu<CR>
map <F7> <Esc>:setlocal nospell<CR>
Note
The language code is sometimes in an xx and sometimes is in an xx_yy form. This is something you need to figure out for your language.

See the upstream documentation for more info about spell check support:

:help spell

17.95. wifi-radar

Don’t forget to change the wifi interface name in /etc/wifi-radar.conf!

17.96. x11vnc

Running x11vnc without a password is not recommended. To create one, type:

vncpasswd ~/.vnc/passwd

Then you can start the VNC server using

x11vnc -display :0 -rfbauth ~/.vnc/passwd -forever

if are logged in on :0.

17.97. xcache

17.97.1. Installing As PHP Extension?

  1. Check /etc/php.ini

    # cat /usr/share/doc/xcache-$pkgver/xcache.ini >> /etc/php.ini
  2. Modify php.ini for your needs:

    # $EDITOR /etc/php.ini
  3. Restart php

Warning
Use >> with cat, not simply >

Please take a look on xcache wiki.

18. Mailing List Rules

18.1. Introduction

The purpose of this document is to define rules that help the communication on the mailing lists of Frugalware Linux.

18.2. Mailing Lists

There are 3 read-only lists
  • frugalware-announce for general announcements (low traffic)

  • frugalware-security for Frugalware Security Advisories

  • frugalware-bugs for newly opened tasks in the Bug Tracking System (This may be extended in future, currently you must use the web interface to comment a task.)

There are 3 lists for developers
  • frugalware-devel for general development questions. Every developer is supposed to read this list. It has a moderate traffic. (Usually only a few mails / day.)

  • frugalware-git for Git commits. This is a high traffic list. Every developer is supposed to subscribe to this list, but feel free to set Mail delivery to Disabled if you don’t want to receive mails. (This is required as only subscribed users can post to prevent spam.)

  • frugalware-darcs for Darcs patches. No longer used, but we keep this list as the archive is useful sometimes.

There are 3 lists for users
  • frugalware-forums is a bidirectional gateway between the users of the Frugalware Forums (this forum) and people who read the mailing lists only. The primary benefit is that not all developers read the Forums, but mailing lists.

  • frugalware-users is for general user questions. It seems the Forums are very popular, but we still provide a mailing list for user questions.

  • frugalware-users-hu is for Hungarian user questions.

If not mentioned, then the language of the lists are English. Please use the appropriate language. If you know of other non-English mailing lists, please tell us, then we can include them here.

You can subscribe to our mailing lists here. Also you can unsubscribe or edit your options there.

18.3. Frugalware developers

Developers are supposed to read the -devel and -users mailing lists, and supposed to be subscribed to the -git list.

18.4. Off-list discussion

We don’t set a Reply-to: header on our mailing lists. This is intentional. If you don’t understand why this is a good decision, first please read this document.

In practice if this is a new situation for you, then use your mail client’s list-reply function, as the reply function will send the mail off-list which is not something you want in most cases.

Also please do not use the group-reply function if possible. Users must subscribe before they post, so you can be sure they are in the mailing list.

(This is different to some other projects' rules. Some projects require you to use group-reply all the time, please do not do so on our lists.)

18.5. Top posting and HTML messages

Please do not top post on our lists. Also please try to avoid HTML messages, many developers use a console mail client to read mails and reading such messages is always problematic.

18.6. Archives

We have our own archive of our mailing lists here. Gmane also provides searchable archives.

19. IRC Rules

19.1. Introduction

This document describes the rules to be followed by everyone who joins the users' and/or developers' IRC channels of Frugalware Linux.

19.2. Welcome

You have joined us on IRC, to get help from or to give help to other Frugalware users. We’re sure you have made a good decision :) This document details a few basic rules that should be followed on IRC. The rules are documented here so that they’re available to everyone.

19.3. IRC channels

There are 5 Frugalware Linux channels for users
  • #frugalware (Main, English-language only)

  • #frugalware.es (Spanish-language only)

  • #frugalware.fr (French-language only)

  • #frugalware.hu (Hungarian-language only)

  • #frugalware.it (Italian-language only)

Please use only the language appropriate to the channel. If you don’t do so, you’ll be asked to change channels. If you know of other non-English channels, please tell us.

There is a Frugalware Linux channel for developers
  • #frugalware.dev (Frugalware development discussion. Only Frugalware developers can speak on this channel but everyone can see what’s being discussed).

19.4. Frugalware developers

If you’re a Frugalware developer, please also join one or more of the user channels. Since users don’t have the right to speak on the #frugalware.dev channel, your presence on a user channel is the only way they can chat with you. Keep in mind that today’s Frugalware users may be tomorrow’s Frugalware developers.

19.5. Off-topic discussion

19.5.1. Other Linux distributions' features

You may discuss other distributions' features but don’t expect everyone to be familiar with them. For example the following question is impossible to answer for someone who hasn’t used Gentoo:

How can i set up my network so that it works as it does under Gentoo?

Instead, describe what it is that you’re trying to achieve, for example:

Is it possible to use network profiles so that I can change all my settings with one command when I get home from my workplace?

19.5.2. Non-Frugalware discussion

Talking about non-Frugalware topics (or even non-Linux) is okay, as long as this doesn’t prevent others from talking about Frugalware. We are a community, so you’re welcome to share your ideas, but don’t make it impossible for others to get help.

19.6. Asking questions

19.6.1. I’m new to Frugalware

Welcome! You’ve either installed or are wanting to install Frugalware and so have some general questions. Before asking them in the IRC channel, please read the about page.

19.6.2. First read the Frugalware documentation

Before asking a question, first read the Frugalware documentation to be sure that the answer is not already there. Those who wrote the documentation have spent quite an amount of time and effort. If your question is answered in the documentation you’ll be told to read it and provided a link. So please - read the documentation and don’t be lazy.

19.6.3. Go ahead and ask

Don’t first ask if you can ask a question, just go ahead and ask. The worst that can happen is that you don’t get an answer.

19.7. Paste

If you have a few lines of an error message or something similar to show to others in the channel, don’t paste it into the channel. This is because (1) IRC is slow and (2) it breaks the flow of other peoples' conversations. Instead, please use our Pastebin, which is available here.

19.8. Is mxw_ a bot?

Yes, it is. It informs users about new binary packages, manages rights on the channel and so on. If you want a new feature to be implemented then feel free to request it at the Frugalware Bug Tracker System (BTS) which is available here.

19.9. Bouncers, leaving your client online when you’re away

That’s not a problem, but please keep in mind the following: if you are away then you should be able to read back the lines when you were highlighted. If this is not possible then it’s better to quit from the channels, since we think that we’re talking to you while we’re talking with /dev/null. Also if you’re online and you have been highlighted and asked, please try to answer. If you have no time, then a simple

Alex: I don’t have time ATM to answer, sorry.

is enough. So that he won’t wait for your answer.

19.10. Private messaging

Please do not /msg users unless you first asked for permission to do so. This is a support channel: you ask in the channel and whoever has the time/knowledge to answer, he/she will. That the fastest way, believe us.

You should also know that some of us (voroskoi, vmiklos, maybe others too) set up their clients to ignore msgs on freenode, so you talk to /dev/null when you /msg to us.

19.11. Logging

All Frugalware channels are logged and public. The logs are linked from the home page, and the main goal is to allow search engines to index them. If you don’t like this then your only choice is to not join ;-)

19.12. Verbose away messages, away nicks

Please avoid them, doing so makes the signal-to-noise ratio higher. See the Away messages suck article for further reasons.

20. Checking if Frugalware tarballs are from a trusted source

20.1. How to verify

  • Import our public keyring with the following command:

$ gpg --recv-keys 20F55619
  • Verify the tarball. Here is an example:

$ gpg --verify pacman-tools-0.7.2.tar.gz.asc pacman-tools-0.7.2.tar.gz
gpg: Signature made Sun 14 May 2006 02:35:34 AM CEST using DSA key ID 20F55619
gpg: Good signature from "Frugalware Linux Archives Verification Key \
        <frugalware-devel@frugalware.org>"

20.2. The meaning of this signature

This signature does not guarantee that the Frugalware Linux Archives master site itself has not been compromised. However, if we suffer an intrusion we will revoke the key and post information on the home page as quickly as possible.

21. Creating new packages

21.1. Introduction

Frugalware consists of thousands of packages. Each file in the distribution belongs to a package and you can easily query to which package a file belongs. For example, if you want to know which package contains /etc/frugalware-release, you should use:

$ pacman-g2 -Qo /etc/frugalware-release
/etc/frugalware-release is owned by frugalware 0.6rc1-1

If you browse the FST (Frugalware Source Tree), you can see, that in the source directory there are category and category-extra dirs. The dirs without -extra tag contains the basic packages of the given category and the dependencies of the basic packages. So a package in these directories can not depend on a package in extra directories. The same is true for console/graphical applications: if your application/library is graphical, then use xapps/xlib, if not then use apps/lib. For each task there is a default package. For example postfix is our default MTA, so exim, sendmail, etc must be in some extra dir.

The repo has a source and a binary directory. The frugalware repo’s directories are source/ and frugalware-$arch/. The binary packages are in the binary directory of the repo. The sources of packages are a little bit more complex. Each package has a category, and each category and package has its own directory in the source dir.

Let’s see an example. You are searching for the cabextract package. The binary package is named frugalware-<arch>/cabextract-<version>-<release>-<arch>.fpm and its source is placed in the source/apps/cabextract dir.

In the package’s own dir, we store everything required to compile the package. You may say we should store only the patches and so, but in our opinion, it’s very annoying when you want to recompile a package and the original server is slow or even unreachable, due to some other reasons. Also it may be illegal that we would provide only binary packages without storing the source (since then it may be possible that we are not able to send the source to you even if you ask us by mail).

Besides, there is a FrugalBuild file in each package’s source directory. This is a simple bash shell script, that will be included by makepkg. So in the FrugalBuild script you can use everything that can be used in a shell script.

Note
During the package database generation we source all the FrugalBuilds, so it must be a very short time to do so for each FrugalBuild. Because of this, you should not use something like:
sha1sums=(`lynx -dump http://foo.com/bar.sha1`)

but you should use:

# http://foo.com/bar.sha1
sha1sums=('094e3afb2fe8dfe82f63731cdcd3b999f4856cff')

This way gensync will be fast even if reaching foo.com takes a lot of time. Also using the -u option an offline build is possible.

Briefly, packaging means collecting the sources, adding additional files (for example init scripts or config files) and writing the FrugalBuild script.

21.2. Recompiling packages

Before creating a new package, first we will recompile an existing package in this howto. It’s very simple. In our example we will recompile the mplayer package.

First, you have to download the current FST.

  • Getting the FST as root

    This is the most simple, you only have to issue:

    # repoman upd
  • Getting the FST as a simple user

    If you want to do it as a regular user, create the ~/.repoman.conf file and edit it, change the fst_root dir in it (by default, it would download the files to /var/fst, and it is not writable as a user, of course).

    The ~/.repoman.conf file should look like:

    fst_root=~/git

    Thought fst_root can point to any directory writeable by the user.

    And finally to get the FST, issue:

    $ repoman upd

Before building the chroot environment, you should make sure about that the fst user exists on your system. Check your /etc/passwd file. If not, then please check your /etc/passwd.pacnew file, that contains the relevant entry, just copy that line to /etc/passwd.

Now that you have the fst user, continue with

$ cd $fst_root/source/xapps/mplayer
$ sudo makepkg [<options>]
Note
If you are using stable, you probably want to use the -t stable option!

First we enter the directory of mplayer then (like make and Makefile) we run makepkg that will build the package according to the parameters described in FrugalBuild. We once had to use the -R option to build the package in a chroot-ed environment. Since 0.5, building in chroot is the default method, you have to use -H if you want to build on the host system. Chroot requires root privileges. To allow a group (for example the devels group) to use sudo makepkg, start visudo as root, and add the following line:

%devels ALL=NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/makepkg

The chroot will be placed by default in /var/chroot. Only one package can be built in a chroot at a time, so maybe you’ll want to specify a separate chroot for each user. In order to do this, set the $CHROOTDIR variable in your /etc/makepkg.conf from:

export CHROOTDIR="/var/chroot"

to

export CHROOTDIR="/var/chroot.`echo $HOME|sed \'s|.\*/\(.*\)$|\1|'"`

This way the one parallel build / one system limit is increased to one parallel build / one user.

(See man makepkg for more info about the benefits of building in a chroot).

21.3. Use variables

You can alter the result of the build process using environment variables without touching the FrugalBuild itself. The git package is a good example. Using

$ sudo makepkg [<options>] USE_DEVEL=y

for that package results in a build of git’s development version. Here is what you need if you want so for your package:

# set the variable to false by default
USE_DEVEL=${USE_DEVEL:-"n"}

(...)

# these commands will be evaluated only in case USE_DEVEL is set to true
if Fuse $USE_DEVEL; then
        _F_scm_type="git"
        _F_scm_url="git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git"
        Finclude scm
fi

In the next section we will see an example for a simple FrugalBuild script.

21.4. A simple example

Let’s see a simple example, the FrugalBuild script of the cabextract package.

# Compiling Time: 0.06 SBU
# Maintainer: Miklos Vajna <vmiklos@frugalware.org>

pkgname=cabextract
pkgver=1.2
pkgrel=1
pkgdesc="a program to extract Microsoft Cabinet files"
url="http://www.kyz.uklinux.net/cabextract.php"
depends=('glibc')
groups=('apps')
archs=('i686' 'x86_64')
up2date="lynx -dump http://www.kyz.uklinux.net/cabextract.php |grep 'cabextract \
        source code'|tr -s ' '|cut -d ' ' -f 6"
source=(http://www.kyz.uklinux.net/downloads/$pkgname-$pkgver.tar.gz)
sha1sums=('871b3db4bc2629eb5726659c147aecea1af6a6d0')

# optimization OK

And here comes the description for each line:

# Compiling Time: 0.06 SBU

You should write here how much time it took to build the package. Of course, it depends on your hardware, so we use SBUs instead of minutes as a unit.

SBU is the Static Binutils Unit, which means the time repoman merge binutils takes on your machine. By default makepkg will print out how many seconds the build took. After you built binutils, you should update your /etc/makepkg.conf:

SBU="257"

The line above means compiling binutils on your machine took 257 seconds. From this point, makepkg will print out SBUs instead of seconds after successful builds, and this SBU value will be equal on anyone’s machine.

# Maintainer: Miklos Vajna <vmiklos@frugalware.org>

If you are the maintainer of the package, write your name or nick and e-mail address here. If you probably you won’t maintain the package, write Contributor instead of Maintainer, and then the Maintainer will add his/her line later. A package may have only one contributor: the first person who wrote FrugalBuild for it. The maintainer is the current maintainer. The other names should not be included in the FrugalBuild, anyone can use the version control features to look for them.

pkgname=cabextract

This will be the name of the package. It’s allowed to include numbers, hyphens (-), etc., and should be lowercase.

pkgver=1.2

The package’s version. Hyphens are not allowed, so a 1.0-6111 will be usually converted to 1.0_6111.

pkgrel=1

Release number marks Frugalware-specific changes. If you recompile a package, you should increase this number. If you upgrade to a newer version, don’t forget to reset this number back to 1. If you design a new package, set this to 1.

pkgdesc="a program to extract Microsoft Cabinet files"

A short one-line description for the package. Usually taken from the project’s homepage or manpage.

url="http://www.kyz.uklinux.net/cabextract.php"

The website of the project.

depends=(\'glibc\')

List of dependencies of the package, defined in a bash array. Usually you should compile a package at least two times: first with depends=(), then you should run chkdep -p foo.fpm that will suggest the dependencies, but handle that information with caution! Reading the README, INSTALL and configure.ac files is also a good idea to find out dependencies.

groups=(\'apps\')

It is needed to know where, in which category the package belongs. The most important thing: don’t put your package in apps, base, devel, lib, multimedia or network, if it depends on X (or on a pkg depending on X, of course). Packages in the extra repository get the -extra suffix to the group name.

You should use groups for creating metapackages. The method is the following: put each package to an existing group (group without a hyphen or with the -extra suffix), then add the packages to a new group, something like foo-suite or whatever your want, provided that the name is not an existing group.

Example:

groups=(\'lib-extra\' \'foo-suite\')

archs=(\'i686\' \'x86_64\')

This array defines for which architectures the given package is available. If it’s not available, it means that gensync will skip it when generating package databases. If you are not able to provide a binary package for a given arch, don’t include that in archs()! For example, no matter if the package could be compiled in x86_64, if you haven’t compiled it yourself, don’t include it.

up2date="lynx -dump http://www.kyz.uklinux.net/cabextract.php |grep 'cabextract \
        source code' |sed 's/.*-\(.*\).t.*/\1/'"

A short command that will give us the latest stable version of the package. This helps maintainers to keep the FST up to date. Usually this string consists of three parts: a lynx -dump someurl, a grep foo, and a sed command. We use the http protocol if possible, but sometimes we have to use ftp. In that case instead of lynx -dump you should use wget -O - -q. Of course, you could use wget all the time, but lynx is simpler. The sed command could be replaced with the combination of tr and cut if you prefer them instead of sed. The example used above would be the following with cut and tr:

up2date="lynx -dump http://www.kyz.uklinux.net/cabextract.php |grep \
        'cabextractsource code'|tr -s ' '|cut -d ' ' -f 6"

source=(http://www.kyz.uklinux.net/downloads/$pkgname-$pkgver.tar.gz)

Here you define the sources of the package in a bash array. You can use simple filenames for patches, or additional files when you place them in the same directory as the FrugalBuild script. You can use URLs if you want makepkg to download them automatically. It’s important to place all sources in the package’s directory including the source files that you can download from a site. Also when dowloading from sourceforge, please use Finclude sourceforge! If you use various random patches from unknown sources, don’t expect that somebody else will port those patches to a newer version. You will have to do the work yourself. You have been warned! Actually try to avoid patches unless they are really necessary (eg: secfix, bugfix).

A few words about the size of the sources. If you use an URL then the size is almost unlimited, but if the source is not an url then the source will be added to the FST when the package is accepted. We don’t allow files bigger than 100KB in FST. To solve this problem, the sources for a given package are placed in the /pub/other/sources/pkgname dir for each package. If the source is not compressed, we use gzip or bzip2 to compress it first. After this you can use a http://ftp.frugalware.org/pub/other/sources/pkgname/foo-styled URL for those big sources.

sha1sums=(\'094e3afb2fe8dfe82f63731cdcd3b999f4856cff\')

Another bash array to prevent compiling from the wrong source. Of course this is useless if you just run sha1sum foo.tar.gz after download. Try fetching original sha1sums from the projects website, if possible. It’s a good idea to leave a comment above this line about where to find these sha1sums.

As you can see there in no build() function in this FB. It’s because we wrote some F* functions to make our work easier. It’s something similar you can see in Gentoo for example. These functions can be found in source/include/util.sh file inside the FST. An empty build actually means:

build() {
        Fpatchall
        Fmake "$@"
        Fmakeinstall
        if echo ${source[@]}|grep -q README.Frugalware; then
                Fdoc README.Frugalware
        fi
}

So Fpatchall will apply all the patches in source() array, then Fmake calls the configure script and make command, then Fmakeinstall acts like make install, finally if a README.Frugalware file is given it will also add that to the package. For details see the utils.sh file, it’s well documented.

Note
You don’t have to use these F* commands, but we highly recommend it. Also if you use simple commands do not forget to add || return 1 after each command, so the build will stop on error!

# optimization OK

This line will be added automatically to the end of the FrugalBuild if the build() function used your $CFLAGS or $CXXFLAGS. This is handy if you want to cross-compile on a faster machine for a slower architecture. If the package doesn’t use our $CFLAGS we can’t cross-compile it, so please try to avoid creating "unoptimized" packages. If the package doesn’t contain any architecture-dependent file, then you can add this line manually as makepkg will not detect this.

21.5. Full reference

Now here is a full list of directives available.

First, let’s start with the install directive. Here you can refer to an install file (usually $pkgname.install) to use. If there is a $pkgname.install in the FrugalBuild’s directory, it will be used automatically. In the install file, you can define actions to be executed before/after installing/upgrading/removing the package. A skeleton of this file can be found under /docs/skel in FST.

Of course, you probably will not need all of these functions, just remove what you don’t need. If you want to do exactly the same after upgrading as after installing, feel free to use post_install $1 in the post_upgrade() function.

Save this file as $pkgname.install, thus makepkg will automatically use it. You should not specify the install script in the source array as it is not used in build().

The pkgname, pkgver, pkgrel, url, source and sha1sums directives were discussed in the previous section.

The backup array is used to make some files in the package as config files. If possible, we don’t modify config files during an upgrade. Example:

backup=(\'etc/pacman-g2.conf\')

Note that the leading slash is missing!

For more information about this, see the handling config files section in the pacman-g2 manpage

The depends array has been discussed already, except I haven’t mentioned before that the elements may include version information, for example:

pkgname=kdewebdev
depends=('kdelibs=3.3.0')

Here you can use <>, ⇐, >= or = operators.

The makedepends array defines packages required only in build time. For example if the source is in SRPM format, probably alien is a build-time requirement.

The rodepends array defines packages required only in runtime. It must be used in any case when putting the given package in the depends() array would cause circular dependency.

In the conflicts array, you can define a list of packages that shouldn’t be installed if you want to install this package. Let’s see an another example:

pkgname=mutt-devel
conflicts=('mutt')

It is necessary as the two packages are almost the same, but the binaries differ. In this case the mutt package must also contain this line: conflicts=(\'mutt-devel\'). Of course, if two or more packages conflict eachother, only one of them can be placed in a non-extra group.

The provides array is used to create virtual dependencies. It means both postfix and sendmail provides mta, so we can do:

pkgname=mailman
rodepends=('mta')

The user has a choice between postfix and sendmail.

The last one in this list is the replaces directive. The module-init-tools package is a good example:

pkgname=module-init-tools
replaces=('modutils')
conflicts=('modutils')

As you can see, we often make such new packages which also conflict with each other. Using the replaces directive when users use pacman-g2 -Su next time, if modutils is installed (probably :)), they will be asked to remove modutils and install module-init-tools.

license=(\'GPL2\')

This directive is optional. At the moment, you may add such a field, but copy the LICENSE field from the source root to the packages’s documentation dir, so this isn’t really necessary.

21.6. Subpackages

Since 0.5 makepkg can also create subpackages. It is very useful when your package has graphical parts based on qt for example. It’s a pain for gnome users as they want the package, but they do not want the qt part. So you create a subpackage for qt part and both side is happy. Let’s see an example:

# Compiling Time: 1.43 SBU
# Maintainer: crazy <crazy@frugalware.org>

pkgname=djvulibre
pkgver=3.5.18
pkgrel=2
pkgdesc="DjVu is a web-centric format for distributing documents and images."
depends=('libtiff' 'libjpeg')
makedepends=('kdelibs' 'gnome-mime-data' 'gnome-icon-theme' 'htop')
rodepends=('xdg-utils')
groups=('xapps')
archs=('i686' 'x86_64')
options=('scriptlet')
_F_sourceforge_dirname="djvu"
_F_sourceforge_broken_up2date=1
Finclude sourceforge
url="http://djvulibre.djvuzone.org/"
source=(${source[@]} head_-n1.patch  no-OPTS-FLAGS-thx.patch)

subpkgs=('djview')
subdescs=('DjVu viewer for qt and mozilla plugins.')
subdepends=('libxi libgl qt libxmu')
subrodepends=('djvulibre')
subgroups=('xapps-extra')
subarchs=('i686 x86_64')

build()
{
        Fcd
        Fpatchall
        Fautoreconf
        export CFLAGS="$CFLAGS"
        export CXXFLAGS="$CXXFLAGS"
        Fconf \
                --enable-threads \
                --disable-desktopfiles \
                --enable-xmltools \
                --enable-djview
        make depend || Fdie
        make || Fdie
        Fmakeinstall
        Fln /usr/lib/netscape/plugins/nsdejavu.so \
                /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/nsdejavu.so
        Fln djview3.1.gz usr/share/man/man1/djview.1

        Fsplit djview usr/bin/djview
        Fsplit djview usr/bin/djview3
        Fsplit djview usr/lib/mozilla
        Fsplit djview usr/lib/netscape
        for i in . ja; do
                [[ $i == . ]] && Fsplit djview usr/share/man/$i/man1/djview.1
                Fsplit djview usr/share/man/$i/man1/djview3.1
                Fsplit djview usr/share/man/$i/man1/nsdejavu.1
        done
        Fsplit djview usr/share/djvu/djview3
}

Here you can see the djvulibre FrugalBuild. Note subpkgs, subdescs, subdepends, subgroups and subarchs. These 5 value is lethal for a subpackage. There are other subpackage variables too of course. See man FrugalBuild for details. Also note that bash does not support two-dimensional arrays, so when defining the array of arrays, then quotes are the major separators and spaces are the minor ones.

Defining the subpackage is only the first part of creating a subpackage. You have to tell makepkg which files you want to put in the subpackage. We use Fsplit command for this. First parameter is the subpackage name, second is the file you want to move. Please never use a trailing slash when defining file patterns, especially if you use wildcards in it!

If you need more example just take a look on avahi FrugalBuild in network group.

Note
Use subpackages when they are necessary, but do not start making foo-devel, foo-common, foo-not-so-common, foo-quite-common-but-not-that-common packages :) Making too much subpackage makes maintaining too hard and simplicity is the frugal way.

21.7. Compiling the package

That’s fairly simple. In the package directory you should do exactly the same as described in the Recompiling packages section. If you want to contribute this package to the Frugalware project, then go to BTS, open a feature request and upload each non-downloadable file (ie. FrugalBuild, install scriptlet, patches) as an attachement. Please do not forget to check your FrugalBuild with fblint command before uploading it. Fblint is available in pacman-tools package.

Happy packaging!

21.8. Kernel modules

A few words about kernel modules. They’re special as even if you installed the correct version of the kernel (and kernel-source) package, sometimes the modules are compiled for the running kernel, so you have to check if compiling against other kernel version than the running one works or not. You can use the modinfo command for this. If crosscompiling does not work always add Fcheckkernel to the build(). So here is the list of conditions a kernel module package have to satisfy:

1) Should depend on kernel=version, where version is the version of the kernel defined in $fst_root/source/include/kernel-module.sh. (Always use up-to-date FST!)

2) Should Finclude the kernel-module scheme.

3) If you want to use a custom install script (saying running just depmod -a after the install/upgrade is not enough for you) then the install script should run depmod -a. Otherwise the scheme will provide so a scriptlet which does so.

4) build() should call Fcheckkernel to ensure the module will be compiled for the right kernel version or it should be commented if you have checked the compiling for other kernel version. It is good for out build servers as they may not run the kernel provided by the given package tree. (They can’t run -stable and -current kernels at the same time :) ).

5) Kernel modules may be installed for the not-currently-running kernel. To ensure they are registered properly, you need to use the Fbuild_kernelmod_scriptlet function. It generates the proper install scriptlet for you.

See man kernel-module.sh for more info.

21.9. Repoman

Repoman is simple tool to download all packages' buildscript and compile programs from source.

The most commonly used repoman commands are the following:

repoman merge package

or simply

repoman m package

builds a package from source and installs it. You can configure the build options in the makepkg_opts directive of /etc/repoman.conf.

By default repoman will install the missing dependencies with pacman, clean up the leftover work files, install the package, and write the resulting package to the current working directory.

repoman update

or simply

repoman upd

updates FST in /var/fst (or the directory set in ~/.repoman.conf). First time repoman will download it (it may take some time!).

22. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002

Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

22.1. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

22.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

22.3. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

22.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

22.5. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.

  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.

  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

  9. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

  11. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

  13. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

  14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

22.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

22.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

22.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

22.9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

22.10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

22.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.